گشنیز (Coriander)

گشنیز Corianderگشنیز Corianderگشنیز Coriander

Coriander
lat. Coriandrum sativum
Other names: Chinese Parsley
Group: Spices
Coriander Coriandrum sativum
Coriander Coriandrum sativum
Coriander Coriandrum sativum
Odor profile: the essence rendered by steam distillation of Coriandrum sativum, also known as cilantro. Has orange facets in top with a spicy, woody-resinous, clay-like background note.




The art of producing perfumes is an ancient art which is said to have begun in Mesopotamia and Egypt, sometime during the second millennium BC. Back in that time, notes used in making perfumes were spices and various kinds of herbs but surprisingly, no use of flowers was made then. I wonder how perfumes smelled in those days. And the possible answer comes to my mind, “It would be something like aromatic, spicy, earthy, and woody and green." But with time, experiments were done with more substances and perfumery was just no more a matter of a use of herbs and spices but it had a wide range of substances to work with.
 
 

In this article of raw materials, we will learn about Coriander and its uses and so much more. Cilantro is the Spanish word for coriander leaves, it is also sometimes called Chinese or Mexican parsley. Technically, coriander refers to the entire plant. It is a member of the carrot family.

       Here's a snappy look at Coriander:

Class: Magnolioseda
Order: Apiales Ginsing / Carrot
Family: Apiaceae of Umbelliferae
Genus and specie: Coriandrum Sativum
Other names: Cilantro and Chinese parsley
Species: Sativum Sativum
Extraction of oil: Steam distillation
Appearance: Viscous transparent liquid
Colour: Yellow
Application: In perfumery, medicine, cosmetics
 

Coriander is popular as a scented stimulating substance and also an important culinary spice. It has been cultivated in different parts of the world for thousands of years now and is said to be one of the oldest known herbs, it can be traced as far back as 5,000 B.C. Coriander has been in wide use in the Middle East, Asia, and southern Europe, and also its origin can be traced back to ancient Egypt. The Romans took coriander with them to Britain. The British then introduced it to North America in 1670, where it took hold especially in Mexico and Latin America.
 
 

Coriander is an annual herb with feathery leaves with pale pink and white umbrella type flowers. The seeds happen to be small and spherical with one end being slightly pointed and the colour is brown when the seeds are dried. The name cilantro refers to the leaves which are used as herb, whereas the seed or fruit is referred to as coriander and both possess different flavours and aroma from one another. The aroma of its seed is usually described as pleasant, warm, nutty and spicy with an undertone similar to orange peel. However, there are some mixed opinions about its leaves. Some find the leaves smell unpleasant, soapy and like burnt rubber, while many people describe it as fresh, green and even citrusy. A question often arises about coriander is that, what is coriander? Is it an herb or spice? Coriander can refer to both an herb and a spice.
 

The earliest Hebrews equated coriander as manna, which God granted to the ‘Children of Israel’ and was one of the bitter herbs which were drunk during Passover. Primeval Egyptians and Greeks believed coriander had aphrodisiac properties. Interestingly, ancient Egyptians considered coriander to be the ‘secret of happiness’ and mixed it in wines to drink as love potion. It is also said that coriander seeds were discovered in the tomb of Tutankhamun.

In present day, coriander is also used to flavour liqueurs and this practice is said to have been started first by the Greeks and Romans, who flavoured their wines with it. In Belgium, it is one of the ingredients of the herb mixture, which traditionally includes coriander and orange peel, to flavour Wheat beer.

As of its culinary uses, chopped fresh leaves are widely used in Mexican and Tex-Mex cooking, where they are combined with chillies and added to salsas, guacamoles, and seasoned rice dishes. The seeds are used whole or ground as a flavouring for food and as seasoning. They are also used in curries, curry powder, pickles, sausages, soups, stews, and ratatouille. In Thailand the root of the coriander plant is used to flavour meats and curries. It is also an ingredient of garam masala, pickling spices and pudding spices and is used in cakes, breads and other baked foods.

The essential oil from this ancient herb has a place in aromatherapy. It helps to ease the mind and fight fatigue. It warms and calms the digestive system, relieves rheumatism and arthritic pain, muscular spasms and detoxifies the body. The essential oil is obtained from the seeds through steam distillation. It is also said to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-spasmodic properties, and hence, it is extensively used as effective massage oil to facilitate blood circulation as well as to relieve stiffness of the joints. Coriander is also used to flavour gin, vermouth, liqueurs and tobacco.
 
 

In perfumes, coriander is used to enrich the top and middle notes with its herbaceous, woody and spicy aura. Coriander oil combines nicely with bergamot, black pepper, cinnamon, clary sage, fennel, frankincense, ginger, grapefruit, juniper berry, lemon, neroli, nutmeg, orange, petitgrain, vetiver, and ylang-ylang.

  Some perfume recommendations, as well as I also welcome you all to share yours:


Coriander D.S. & Durga

Coriandre Jean Couturier

Fifi Chachnil Fifi Chachnil

Fracas Robert Piguet

Armani Prive Vetiver Babylone

Caravelle Epicee Frapin

Drakkar Noir Guy Laroche

Live Jazz Yves Saint Laurent

 

Images: flower of coriander by wikipedia, coriander with a bee by rejohnson71


Author: Naheed Shoukat Ali  (naheed)
Fragrantica Writer

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