رازیانه (Jasmine)

گل یاس Jasmineگل یاس Jasmineگل یاس Jasmine
Jasmine
lat. Jasminum grandiflorum, Jasminum Sambac
Group: Flowers
Jasmine Jasminum grandiflorum, Jasminum Sambac
Jasmine Jasminum grandiflorum, Jasminum Sambac
Jasmine Jasminum grandiflorum, Jasminum Sambac
Odor profile: sweet narcotic scent that is floral but with an animalic background like living flesh, can be piercingly sweet and carry scent a mile off; can present "indolic" facets or be greener/airier when synthesized in the lab

Jasmine, the name of a fun-loving fragrance, provides a unique and enthusiastic aroma. The fragrance of jasmine is joined with our culture in the forms of spirituality, tradition and also medicine. Jasminum sambac fragrance has rejuvenating, boosting and energizing properties, which makes it a natural mind-blowing fragrance, while Jasminum grandiflorum is one of the most prominent scents and it has highly unique and incredibly intense aroma.


Jasmines are a group of shrubs grown commercially for production of their fragrant flowers and essential oil. The bulk of the flowers are used as such in garlands and decorative branches for religious offerings, and a small quantity is used for production of oils and attars. Jasmine concrete and absolute are used in high-grade perfumes, and come next to rose in order of importance.

There are several species of jasmine but widely available are Jasminum sambac and Jasminum grandiflorum. These are commonly used for the flower's fragrance and also for a good quality of essential oil. Jasminum sambac is a species of jasmine native to South and Southeast Asia. It is known as the Arabian jasmine in English. It is the national flower of the Philippines, where it is known as Sampaguita. It is also one of the three national flowers of Indonesia. Another one is Jasminum grandiflorum, commonly known as French jasmine, Spanish jasmine, Catalonian jasmine, Chameli, Jaji, malati mālatī मालती or mallika mallikā मल्ललका in Sanskrit; chameli chamélī चमेली, juhi Juhī जही, or ू motiya motiyā मोततया in Hindi.

Botanical name - Jasminum sambac (Arabian jasmine),  Jasminum grandiflorum (chameli , Spanish jasmine, Royal jasmine, Catalonian jasmine)
 


Family:  Oleaceae

Plant Part: Flowers

Extraction Method: Essential oil in flowers is extracted through enfleurage/solvent methods which are widely used for production of jasmine attars in India.

Colour: Deep brown with a golden tinge

Consistency: Thick

Strength of Aroma: Strong

Blends well with: generally blends with all oils.
 

 

Origin

Jasmine originates from the Far East, namely India and China, where for many centuries it has been one of the most valuable oils used in aromatherapy and for some ceremonial purposes. Jasmine is being cultivated in Spain, France, Egypt, Algeria, Morocco and other countries of the world. Jasmine, along with rose oil, are considered  the most expensive and exotic oils used in today’s perfumery.
 
History

Since recent times, Jasmine has been concluded as the "King of Oils" (Rose is the "Queen"). Apparently this is because Jasmine is the most masculine of all the floral oils. It is also interesting to note that it takes 8,000 carefully hand- picked blossoms to produce 1 gram (about 1 ml.) of Jasmine Absolute.


 
Habitat and distribution

The term Jasmine is probably derived from Persian word Yasmine meaning "fragrance," which is adopted in Arabic as Yasym given to jasmine flowers. Jasminum grandiflorum is a native of Kashmir, Afghanistan and Iran, while J. Sambac is a native of South and Central India. Jasmines are widely found in warm parts of Europe, Asia, Africa and Pacific regions but are almost absent in America. Annual production of jasmine concrete is more than 15 tons, with the largest producer being Egypt, followed by Morocco, India, Italy, France and China.
Botany


Jasminum sambac is an evergreen dwarf spreading bushy shrub reaching up to 0.5 to 1 m high, with attractive glabrous leaves producing attractive, white, sweet scented flowers in great profusion in the hot season. It is the most ideal species for cultivation in Kerala (India). Only a few varieties reproduce by seed in the wild. The flowers bloom throughout the year and are produced in clusters of 3 to 12 together at the ends of branches. They are strongly scented, with a white corolla. The flowers open at night, and close in the morning.



Jasminum grandiflorum is a twining or nearly erect growing shrub.  The branches are ribbed, drooping, annular; leaves are opposite, imparipinnately compound, rachis flattened or winged; leaflets of 5-7, elliptic, round or oval. Flowers are borne on terminal or axillary cymes longer than leaves, white, often tinged purple on the outside, fragrant; bracts ovate to spathulate, oblong, foliaceous, calyx glabrous, 5-lobed, star-shaped, elliptic or obovate. The corolla tube encloses 2 stamens borne on short slender filaments. Arabian Jasmine blooms all year long in the greenhouse. Flowers are ¾ to 1 inch across and are powerfully fragrant.
 
Chemical constituents

Jasmine concrete is a yellowish brown waxy mass with a characteristic odor of jasmine flowers. The approximate composition of jasmine flower oil obtained by enfleurage is benzyl acetate, ∂ - linalool, linalyl acetate, benzyl alcohol, jasmine, indole and methyl anthranilate. Jasmine absolute is a viscous clear yellowish brown liquid possessing a delicate odor of fresh jasmine flowers.
Uses of Jasmine essential oil
 

Jasmine essential oil is the natural oil with the most delicate, rich and very beautiful sweet floral aroma, making it a valuable ingredient for many cosmetic products. Jasmine is one of the oldest known and most widely-used botanical scents.

The word “Jasmine” has Persian origins, and Asian nationalities used jasmine branches with gorgeous white blossoms for their various ceremonies and rituals. This oil is one of the most common ones for meditation, stimulating the feelings of harmony and optimism, inducing joy and happiness, etc. It is one of the most commonly grown ornamentals in India and Bangladesh, where it is native. The flowers are used to make thick garlands used as hair adornments.

Jasmine flowers are utilized for scores of purposes—in Aromatherapy, for tranquillizing, for bathing, in cosmetics and many more. The uses of jasmine essential oil are endless.


Images: Fotolia.com


Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta

Senior Research Fellow
Plant Quarantine Division
National Bearue of Plant Genetic Resources
Pusa Campus, New Delhi

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