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Odor profile: tropical fruity note, extremely succulent and pulpy, with peach-like and plum-like facets.
Mango is popularly known as the king of fruits, belong to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous species that bear edible fruits in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae (cashew family). Mango is the one of my favourite fruit, pulp of mango and juice provide instant energy in dessert summers of India.
Most of the mangos belong to the varieties of species Mangifera indica. The other Mangifera species produces lower quality of fruits. The mango is the native plant of the Indian Subcontinent. Cultivated in many tropical regions and distributed widely in the world, mango is one of the most extensively exploited fruits for food, juice, flavor, fragrance and color, making it a common ingredient in new functional foods often called superfruits.
About one thousand named mango varieties found throughout the world, which is a testament to their value to humankind. Mango is a common garden tree throughout the tropics. When ripe, this delicious dessert fruit is particularly high in vitamin A. The fruit is also an important source of sustenance for birds, bats, insects, and mammals.
The genus Mangifera originates in tropical Asia. In Borneo, Java, Sumatra and the Malaya Peninsula region have greatest number of species of the genus. Mango is now cultivated throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world and introduced in pacific region for commercial fruit production.
Mangos known throughout the world by different names, they have common derivations, reflecting the origins and spread of the mango tree along with the spread of human communities. The most popular name of the mango is Aam, Amb (Hindi), Mango (English), Manako (Hawaii), Manga (Spanish) etc.
Mangos are long lived; evergreen tree and can reach up to 15-30 m in height and may develop an evergreen dome shaped canopy. Mangos grow well in warm, frost-free climate with a good winter dry season.
Mango flowerings occur during the coolest months of the year. Mango flowers are born on terminal inflorescences (panicles) which usually have primary, secondary, and tertiary branches that are pale green to pink or red and bear hundreds of flowers. The mango has two flower forms, hermaphrodite (flower with both sexes) and male, with both forms occurring on the same inflorescence.
The ratio of hermaphrodite to male flowers on an inflorescence varies with variety and season and is influenced by the temperature during inflorescence development. The male flowers are similar to the hermaphrodite flowers but are without the pistil, which is become aborted. The leaves are variable in shape and size but usually are oblong with tips varying from rounded to acuminate. Leaf form differs among varieties but is more consistent within a variety. New leaves emerge in flushes of 10–20 leaves.
Leaves emerge green, turning tan-brown to purple during leaf expansion and then gradually changing to dark green as the leaves mature. The colour of the young, expanding leaf varies with variety and can be from light tan to deep purple.
Mango is a drupe fruit type means fleshy with a single seed enclosed in a leathery endocarp.
Fruits from different varieties can be highly variable in shape, size, taste, aroma and flesh texture. In India, there are various varieties of mango fruits are available and also exported to throughout the world. You can see the various varieties of mango and there characteristic features here. Some popular pacific varieties of mangos are Ah-Ping, Fairchild, Gouviea, Haden, Kensington Pride, Kopu Reva, Mapulehu, Momi-K, Pope, Rapoza.
As you know the popularity of this fruit, it is widely utilized by various ways. Mango fruit can be eaten in 3 distinct ways, depending largely on the cultivar: unripe (Green mango), ripe (the common way to enjoy mango throughout the world), and processed (at various stages of maturity, in the form of pickles or chutneys, dried slices, canned slices in syrup, juice and puree or paste).
Mango fruits contain amino acids, carbohydrates, fatty acids, minerals, organic acids, proteins and vitamins. Ripe mangoes contain moderate levels of Vitamin C, but fairly rich in Pro-vitamin A and vitamins B1 and B2. The fruit gave phenolic compounds (m-digallic acid, gallotannin, phloroglucinol, protocatechuic acid); ﬂavonoids (kaempferol and myri-cetin). The seed kernel contains alpha-and beta-amyrins, gallotannin, glucogallin and several sterols. The leaves contain a pentacyclic triterpene alcohol, indicol, besides tarax- one, taraxerol, friedelin, lupeol and beta-sitosterol. Leaves contain several sugars, free malic and citric acids and amino acids. Some esters of benzophenone C-glucosides and kinic and shikmic acids have also been reported. Mangiferin is present predominantly in the leaves and twigs.
The bark contains phenolic compounds (gallocatechin, protocatechuic acid), xanthones (homomangiferin), several triterpenoids and sterols. All parts gave phenolic acids (ellagic acid, gallic acid, ethyl gallate); ﬂavonoids (catechin), and xanthones (mangiferin).
The mango fruit utilised for its nutritional importance, its medicinal value, and for its pleasant flavour. Today mango and its flavour are added to many products, such as fruit juice, ice creams, wines, teas, biscuits and other confectionary items, cosmetics, soft drinks etc.
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