پرتقال خونی (Blood Orange)

پرتقال خونی Blood Orangeپرتقال خونی Blood Orangeپرتقال خونی Blood Orange

Odor profile: mutation of the sweet orange with red pigmented flesh, very sweet and juicy smelling with a hint of raspberry.

 
    
Botanical Name-
Citrus sinensis (mutant variety)

Family-
Rutaceae

Common Name-
Maltese, Sanguine

Blood oranges are varieties of common sweet orange, Citrus sinsensis; their color stems from reddish-purple anthocyanins, i.e. water-soluble pigments, in the fruit. “Blonde” oranges, such as navels and Valencias derive their orange color from carotenoid pigments; blood oranges additionally contain several anthocyanins, mainly cyanidin-3-glucoside. This magenta-coloured compound is common in many fruits, including apple skins, red currants, cherries and raspberries. Scientists recently discovered that all sweet oranges have the basic genes to produce anthocyanins, but that these genes function in blood oranges only.

These three cultivars of blood oranges are most common: Tarocco, Sanguinello and Moro. Some other cultivars like Maltese, Khanpur, Washington Sanguine, Ruby Blood, Red Valencia, Burris blood, Vaccaro blood orange, Entre Fina blood orange, etc., are cultivated as well.
The Moro is known as the most colorful citrus fruit. Its fruits have deep red flesh and a bright red blushed rind. The fruits have a stronger, distinct and sweet flavor with a hint of raspberry. The Moro's colour stems from a bud mutation of the Sanguinello Moscato cultivar. The Moro oranges have deep blood-red flesh which ranges from orange-veined with ruby coloration to vermilion, to vivid crimson and nearly black.


Another cultivar of blood oranges, Tarocco, has medium-sized fruits and is the most flavorful and sweetest of all varieties. It is known as "half-blood," because the flesh is not as accentuated in red pigmentation as the Moro and other varieties. It has a thin orange skin with small red accents. The Tarocco is one of the world's most popular oranges because of its sweetness and juiciness.

The Sanguinello is also a variety of blood oranges, and has a reddish skin with a sweet and tender flesh. The fruit has a compact peel, clear yellow with a red tinge. The flesh is orange with multiple blood-colored streaks.
 


Blood oranges are believed to originate from either China or the Southern Mediterranean, where they have been grown since the 18th century. They are now the most commonly cultivated orange variety that is grown in Italy. The anthocyanins, which give the orange its distinct maroon color, will only develop when temperatures are low at night, which is ideal during the Mediterranean fall and winter.
 

Anthocyanin pigments redden the flowers and fruits of many plants and help attract insects and other animals for the purpose of pollination and the distribution of seeds. In citrus, anthocyanins color the flowers and young leaves of lemons, citrons and Ichang papedas, but are otherwise relatively rare. Curiously, no anthocyanins occur in orange trees, except for blood orange fruits. The anthocyanins provide blood oranges with a distinctive “berry-like” or “raspberry-like” flavor. Interestingly, the pure anthocyanins are almost tasteless. Fruits colored by anthocyanins, including strawberries, blueberry and cranberries, vary greatly in flavor. Blood oranges certainly do not smell like raspberries, because they lack the distinctive “raspberry ketone.” The most delicious blood oranges have flesh that is either medium burgundy in color, or lightly streaked with red, depending of the variety.

Late in the season, in March and April, the main blood orange variety grown in the United States, Moro, often has deep violet pulp—almost black—because the fruits are packed with anthocyanins, and because the pigments change from red to violet as acidity drops with advancing maturity. Though dramatic, these super-dark fruits usually have lost so much acidity that they taste flat, and tend to develop an unpleasant musty aroma. Blood orange juice may be somewhat tart, but other kinds are sweet while retaining the characteristic blood orange taste.



Blood orange essential oil has a warm, radiant and tangy, balsamic, sweet and fruity aroma; the oil is extracted via the method of coldpressing. Blood orange adds a sparkling citrus note to fragrant blends. It blends well with lavender, frankincense, geranium, grapefruit, mandarin, neroli, rose, lemon, clary sage, myrrh and spicy oils like clove and cinnamon. Blood Orange essential oil has anti-depressant, antiseptic, anti-spasmodic and aphrodisiac properties. The scent is said to be uplifting and stimulating.
If you like the fruity and intense note of blood orange, you can search for them using Fragrantica's Search by Notes.

Photos: Derek Purdy, dibaer, ccharmon, jessica wilson {jek in the box}, iamarocker, niznoz, Muy Yum
 


Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta (cshekhar)

Fragrantica Writer
 

 

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