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Odor profile: Synthetic or naturally derived note of pungent characteristics reminiscent of cured hides and leather goods. Usually rendered by birch tar or by synth isoquinolines.
The distinct smell of leather is soft on the nostrils and yet so exciting. The rich leather scent evokes memories of the best moments in life, it comforts by its proximity to the body and excites at the same time, being so primitive, so natural, and again so sensual.
The scent of leather lies in the midline between masculine and feminine tones. Historically, leather is one of the earliest notes in perfumery, rooted in the tradition of Gantiers Parfumeurs, a guild of Parisian glove makers who made leather gloves for the aristocracy. According to the fashion of the 16th century, the gloves were perfumed with oils, musk, ambergris and civet, to mask the nauseating breath of animal skin. Due to the tanning process, the raw skin doesn’t smell so good, and this re-odorized scent is actually what today describes our notion of the smell of leather.
The first officially documented leather scent was worn by King George III - The Royal English Leather. This fragrance, still available today, was the first fragrance created by Creed, a royal glove maker. The king was so fond of the smell of scented gloves that he asked Creed to make it a body fragrance.
The roots of leather perfumery reach all the way back in the past to the tradition of leather scenting, when the flowery fragrances were used to mask the organic odor. Historically, the leather fragrances emerged from two major schools, dividing into the Russian leather types and the Spanish leather types.
Russian leather scents are inspired by the smell of the military garments and their strong impression of virtue, authority, and success. The Russian leather scent has a very sharp and characteristic aroma, owing to the birch tar, which was used to make the leather goods waterproof and elastic. This note became very popular as women’s scent, at the time of women’s emancipation. In the history of perfumery, the early 20’s are marked by a large number of fragrances, launched by different homes, called Cuir de Russie.
But it was the Spanish leather scent that emerged from the 16th century practice of scenting chamois with the essence of herbs, flowers and fruits, in harmony with civet and musk. Peau d’Espagne (Spanish skin), a fruit of traditional practice of leather scenting, remains a prominent notion even in the modern perfumery. The leather note used in perfumery is therefore, an artificial scent, created as a crossbreed of flowers and skin. The genuine leather, a material treated by perfume, is an organic compound made of animal skins that normally has an unpleasant smell.
Today, the reproduction of the leather odor is achieved by using naturally derived scents as well as those synthesized in a lab. Natural sources include birch, juniper and cade oil, styrax, cassie, castoreum, myrtle, and cistus labdanum. To achieve this strong animalistic note, perfumers also use notes created in the laboratory: quinolines, safraleine, aldehydes, and synthesized suede nuances. For warmer and smoother tones, such as the soft deer leather smell, the birch scent is dissolved in vanilla or floral notes.
Today the nuances of leather (powdery, light, dusty, sharp, woody, floral, etc.) are hard to classify into the distinct categories. Russian and Spanish leather are just echoes from the past. Even when the perfumes are named after these smells, the inspiration is driven from the old days. In our day, there is no obsession for leather neither in Russia nor in Spain.
When Arabian ingredients came into fashion, we became acquainted with the variant of Arabian leather, which is typically associated with strong and sharp spicy nuances. Perfect examples are Serge Lutens, Parfum d`Empire and Montale.
Leather fragrances of different brands, especially those in the leather industry, are very much appreciated and often used to promote the brand and its products. One of the most prominent examples is the house of Hermes and their leather fragrances.
This house was first established as a harness workshop that created the finest leather accessories specially designed for riders. It was not until later that the company shifted to production of handbags and other pieces of ladies’ and men’s gallantry. Their leather fragrances smell just like their fine line of products. Trussardi fragrances share the same savor.
Guerlain also came out with an interesting variant of a leather scent – Guir Beluga – light and powdery leather fragrance, whose animalistic notes melt into the finest flowers. Variations of leather fragrances are endless, but their essence is always recognizable. It contains something that attracts people, not only as a scent but also as a notion which, at different times and in different cultures meant both diverse and the same things – freedom, prestige, power and sensuality.
عنبر (کهربا) (Amber)
Odor profile: sweet, resinous, cozy and warm, often rather powdery note recreated from a mix of balsams, usually labdanum, benzoin, vanilla, styrax and fir or a combination of some of these. The default oriental note.
Amber - Admired for its charm and grace, it has been given various names on which one can write poetry and say words of praise. The words such as Tears of the sun, Tiger's soul, Hardened honey, Petrified light, Window to the past, Nordic gold and many more. According to scientists Amber is fossilized tree resin that has taken millions of years to form.
Gleaming like the sun
are the amber beads
laid on the glass table.
This aromatic resin is also referred to as an organic gemstone that's the hardened resin of the now extinct Pinus succinifera, and other trees. It made amber the center of interest to scientists and people likewise with the finding that it had remnants of plants and insects which had been first trapped and preserved, and upon research, they turned out to be millions of years old. And hence, not only did we learn about the existence of life on earth but we also came to know about the existence of amber.
Most of the world's amber is in the range of 30-90 million years old, however, the oldest amber has an age of 345 million years. Semi-fossilized resin or sub-fossil amber is called copal. There are about 3,000 catalogued specimens of amber inclusions ranging from insects, arachnids, tiny animals and plants. However, the most common and the most amazing have been the insect and leaf inclusions in amber.
Talking of the origin of amber, it is found in almost every part of globe, while most older amber deposits were found in Europe, which are about 50 types of fossil resins of different ages. Amber from the Baltic region, which is also known as Baltic Amber, is uniquely known for its quality and is most sought after. It is rich bright yellowish in color. It is considered best for making jewelery and is called succinite from the Latin succinum. On the other hand, Mexican amber is the result of resins of leaf-bearing trees and is widely used in jewelry. The oldest known Asian fossil resins (sometimes pieces have the size of a head) are found in Burma. They are mostly opaque, dark brown, sometimes red and yellow. In Africa, locals, especially women, use them for making of adornments and amulets. In Sicily and in northern Italy deposits of dark red and yellow fossil resins of trees of the family Cupressaceae called Sicilian amber is found. Since the oldest times amber has been used in the manufacture of adornments. Amber comes in various colors such as orange, yellow, red, green, brown, white, blue and almost black. It may be transparent or clouded. Transparent tones range from pale to dark yellow, to yellow light brown.
Before taking you through the pages of history further, I must also share about amber in fragrances in between. Perfumer Adam Gottschalk writes how the amber note is obtained in perfumes, which is rather a combination of benzoin, labdanum, and vanilla which gives the feel of warm, a little sweet and woody amber and mingled with other notes it emerges with its various characters. With just a basic combination of amber and oudh in Rasasi's Amber Oudh, it gives the wearer a warmth of sweet amber laid on bitter oudh. The best I can describe the combination is as a carefully designed gold pendant hung on a heavy gold chain, that's how it feels.
Amber was also very popular in ancient Rome during the reign of Nero when jewelry, ornaments, amulets, and even dice were made from amber. Nero also dispatched an expedition to Scandinavia to find "northern gold," which resulted in the establishment of important new trade routes for the Empire. The Russian Amber Room is considered one of the best creations in history and not only this, it has been called the 8th wonder of the world. The Amber Room was a collection of chamber wall panels commissioned in 1701. It was made from 1701 onwards in order to be installed at Charlottenburg Palace, home of Friedrich I, the first King of Prussia, at the urging of his second wife, Sophie Charlotte.
In 1717 it was given to Russian Tsar Peter the Great, from Prussia and was constructed of six tons of amber arranged in ornate wall panels. In 1755 it was first transferred and installed in the Winter Palace and then in the Catherine Palace by Tsarina Elizabeth of Russia. It was a complete chamber decoration of amber panels backed with gold leaf and mirrors. The amber room was destroyed in 1945 which caused it to become known as the Lost Amber Room. Its recreation was decided on in 1975 which continued in 1979 as well and it was at last opened to the public in 2003.
Amber stones are always warm to the touch and comforting to the sense of smell. Amber has not only been used as jewelry or in fragrances, but it has also been considered as a medicinal remedy for many diseases from the ancient times till now.
Talking further on fragrances, in Imari, one of Avon's classics, amber has been nicely blended with aldehydes, sandalwood, galbanum and vanilla to give it a bright warm feel. Amber in DKNY's Gold is light and woody just like an amber pendant when worn around the neck, and when it touches the skin, together the heat of the skin and the amber emit a warm fragrance which is so comforting and light.
What are your favorite amber fragrances?
شاهبوی(نوعی عنبر) (Ambergris)
Group: Animal Sources
Odor profile: Naturally a product of the intenstine of sperm whales, found floating on the ocean and blanched by sea and sun with a skin-like salty and warm effect. Synthetically recreated today.
Ambergris, which comes from some species of sperm whale, is one of the most valuable raw materials in perfumery. It's rare, and the fragrance it exudes is just as rare. In perfumes ambergris is used as a fixative and its presence can be best described as marine, animalic and sweet. Speaking of chemical content, the three major components isolated from ambergris are triterpene alcohol ambrein, the chief active ingredient, as well as epicoprostanol and coprostanone.
To impart further knowledge on the subject, we have Adrienne Beuse, to whom perfumer Mandy Aftel introduced me. The company Adrienne runs with her husband is called Ambergis New Zealand Ltd (ambergris.co.nz). It was her husband who first became interested in ambergris and began collecting it for sale. With the expansion of internet businesses, they set up a trading business in 2004, looking for further opportunities to market the product.
Standard quality (Medium grade): a cross section of the interior of a piece
(photo from Ambergris NZ Ltd)
It was a learning opportunity to talk with Adrienne and the information she provided was commendable. We began with the texture and smell of fresh ambergris and its main categories.
Adrienne: Fresh ambergris. It is jet black in color (dark brown inside). It has a pliable, sticky texture (like wet soft clay). It has a strong manure odor, which most people would consider very unpleasant. If you find fresh ambergris, it is better to throw it back into the sea as it's useless. We consider that there are basically three main categories of ambergris. (It is important to know this for an overall understanding of the product.)
WHITE/GREY Ambergris - Product which has a white or partly white coating and a light interior color. Normally pieces of this type are smaller in size (they have been in the ocean longer). The fragrance will have at least some sweetness
STANDARD Ambergris - This product is normally brown/grey or ash in color. It will have a good fragrance but still a little strong. Pieces can be larger. You can often notice some layers in the material.
LOW QUALITY Black Ambergris - This type can be very hard, firm or soft.
The fragrance is normally quite rough, animalic, heavy and/or fecal. Is ambergris whale's vomit?
Adrienne: Ambergris has long been referred to as whale vomit. In earlier times, it was believed that the whale would vomit up this material from its stomach. However, research in modern times would suggest that it primarily forms in the whale's intestines and would be excreted from the animal (rather than being vomited out from the stomach). Despite this research, many people still refer to ambergris as whale vomit.
How many years does it take, on the minimum, for ambergris to mature and what age of the ambergris is considered best to be used in fragrances? How is the age of ambergris estimated?
Adrienne: Ambergris can float in the ocean for many years. We could not say what is the ultimate amount of time for a piece to cure but normally it would be desirable for the piece to float in the ocean for as long as possible (20 - 30 years). We could not estimate the precise age of a piece, according to the appearance. However, we can tell from several factors (the thickness of the white exterior coating, the interior color of the piece and the fragrance) if it is an older and well-cured piece.
High quality: White Grey Ambergris (photo from Ambergris NZ Ltd)
As a piece floats in the ocean, a white coating will form on the outside (oxidization from the salt water). This white coating can be thin and patchy but it will become thicker if the piece stays in the ocean a long time. The piece will also become lighter in color on the inside, as it dries and cures. The fragrance will also become lighter and more refined. In general, lighter colored pieces have a lighter, sweeter fragrance and have been in the ocean for a longer time.
Is ambergris hard or is it brittle?
Adrienne: The texture of ambergris is normally hard. Only the lowest qualities have a soft (firm, pliable) texture. Pieces which are very old may become more brittle and powdery.
How will you describe the fragrance of ambergris and how to test for it?
Adrienne: It is always difficult to accurately provide a description of the fragrance of ambergris. Every piece can be different and every person can react differently to the fragrance. There are several important points to note:
A) Quality - The word "ambergris" is used to denote all grades of the product; there is a wide variation in the quality of ambergris and the subsequent odor. The lowest quality ambergris is soft in texture and black in colour and typically has a strong "manure" odor. The fragrance would give the impression of being in a stable before it has been cleaned out. Many people would find this odor offensive. On the other hand, very high-quality pieces can have a very light, subtle and sweet odor which would be hardly noticeable, if you were to hold the raw piece directly to your nose. The difference in appearance and fragrance can be so great between these two extremes of quality that people would find it difficult to understand that the original source of the material is the same.
Lowest quality: Soft Black Ambergris above and Black Ambergris below
(photo from Ambergris NZ Ltd)
B) Personal Experience - The fragrance of ambergris is complex and this complexity adds to the very different impressions that people will have to the product. Even when testing the same piece (where there is no variation in quality), a quite opposite impression may be gained by different individuals. This difference will in part be due to the variation in olfactory sense of each individual, but the complexity of ambergris adds another dimension. The blend of notes in a given piece can provide a pleasing response and even evoke a pleasant memory or association for one person. For another, the same complex notes may bring a less pleasing result and evoke an unpleasant memory or sensation. An example would be where a piece had an earthy, mossy fragrance. This type of profile may appeal to someone who finds the odor of the damp forest floor after rain to be appealing but may signify simply an odor of " freshly turned soil" to another.
Testing for Ambergris
There is no test which members of the public can use to easily (and conclusively) know if they have genuine ambergris or not. Ambergris is a very specialized product and considerable experience is desirable with regard to accurate identification. While it may sometimes be found with a quite "typical" appearance, it can also appear in very unusual shapes, forms and colors, making identification difficult.
The hot needle test will provide some information. The important point to note is that ambergris (of any quality) will always melt to a glossy, dark-colored, thick liquid residue when a hot needle is applied. If heat is applied to any material and it does not melt to a liquid, then it could not be ambergris.
We also discussed its prices and safety precautions, and Adrienne told me that it is often confusing for people to find the right type. Prices also vary according to types but it is of high importance that the buyer can differentiate between the highest and lowest quality. Sometimes people end up buying the lowest type for a higher price. Currently, highest-quality ambergris is sold for $25 for a gram and $10 per gram for the lowest quality. About its safety, because it's from an animal source, the first safety precaution is to it keep away from animals. Direct heat will be another factor to its damage. The best way is to wrap ambergris in a cotton cloth and keep it in a drawer or cabinet.
Please visit Ambergis New Zealand Ltd at www.ambergris.co.nz
Photos by Ambergris NZ Ltd (photographer: Frans Beuse), copyright of the photos is retained by Ambergris NZ Ltd
Photo of whale tale by kohane, Photo of whale eye by Photobotos.com
Author: Naheed Shoukat Ali (naheed)
Group: Animal Sources
Odor profile: sweet, edible, golden autumnal note which illuminates a composition relying on citruses and oriental notes and gives profusion to floral notes
The sweet golden liquid known as honey is one of the nature’s most miraculous products. Honey, the nature’s sweetener, is a syrupy delicacy made by bees. There are more than twenty thousand different species of bees, but just a couple of them are skillful enough to make honey.
Honey bees are making this sweet food using nectar from flowers, and a single pound of honey stands as a lifetime work of about three hundred bees. It is estimated that the bee colony needs to visit about two million flowers before it collects enough nectar to make a single pound of honey, and this is why honey bees never sleep! Instead, a standard crowd of a single beehive makes up to 400 pounds of honey each season!
Honey is partially digested food that bees store in the hive during the long months of winter, when plants and flowers aren't blooming and no nectar is available. Each worker honey bee can make only a 1/12th teaspoon of honey in its lifetime, and only two tablespoons of honey could provide enough energy for a honey bee to fly once around the world.
Of the more than 20,000 bee species in the world, about 2,000 are native to Mexico. However, the true honey bee (with its seven recognized species and a total of 44 subspecies) was brought to the New World by the Spanish conquistadors, in the early 16th century. The Native American tribes have named them "white man's flies," because flying swarms often indicated the proximity of the European settlers. But even long before Europeans, Mayan people harvested honey from nests of stingless bees native to tropical forests and used it as a sweetener, as an antibiotic and for production of honey wine.
The production of honey and its use have a very long history. It is believed that the practice of honey harvesting dates as far back to at least 15,000 years in past, as demonstrated by cave paintings in Valencia, Spain. However, honey was not always used only as food. Even the nature of its name suggests more powerful, sacral significance - “honey” originates from the ancient Hebrew word for “enchant.” In Hebrew tradition, honey is considered kosher, even though it is produced by non-kosher beings – flying insects. The rabbis of the Talmud discuss this question in detail and for us to understand it we have to remember that, in ancient Israel, beekeeping was developed much after Biblical times- some 3,000 years ago. The classic Biblical teachings mention wild bees for which it was not believed to produce honey but to simply carry the pure nectar of flowers to their hives, and store it as a sweet liquid gold. Today we know that honey bees actually do produce honey thanks to the special enzymes synthesized by the body of the insect. In this process, saccharides from plant nectar are transformed into honey through numerous cycles of regurgitation (expulsion of undigested material from the mouth) until it is partially digested.
In almost all sacred documents of both East and West, honey stands as a metaphor for all good things. The Promised Land between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River – Canaan – is “a land flowing with milk and honey.” In many other cultures it represents the same symbol of sweet life and prosperity like in Jewish tradition, where it still keeps a special place as one of the symbols of Rosh Hashanah - the Jewish New Year. In Celtic mythology, a river of honey wine – mead – runs through paradise and the bees are the very messengers of gods. Mead plays a large part in countless Celtic traditions – as the conferrer of immortality, artistic inspiration and knowledge, it is used in the sacral rites, the grand ceremonies, as well as in everyday life. Mead is the gift of gods and the drink of kings, a magic brew that makes sovereigns immortal and levels them with deities if only they drink the “blood red wine” bestowed by the Fairy Queen.
This natural nutritive sweetener offers many substantial health benefits. Not only that it represents nature’s energy booster, but it also builds up our immune system and acts as a remedy for numerous ailments. Honey is great therapy for sore throat; it fights against bacteria, viruses and fungi, promotes good night sleep and helps with heavy hangovers caused by drinking too much alcohol. Phytonutrients found in honey are shown to possess cancer-preventing and anti-tumor properties, while experimental evidence indicates that it may improve blood sugar control and insulin sensitivity. In Islam, honey is recommended directly by Prophet Muhammad for healing purposes and because of its numerous medical favors. It is, in the same manner, considered as one of the five elixirs of immortality in Hinduism.
But, did you know that the honey itself is pretty much immortal? You could place honey anywhere and keep it for thousands of years and it will not spoil! In fact, honey that was found in King Tutankhamen’s tomb was still edible after more than 2,000 years it spent underneath the sands in the Valley of the Kings. Until now, the oldest remains of honey have been found in Eurasian country of Georgia, dating back to about 4,700 - 5,500 years ago, but bees have been producing honey for at least 150 million years.
Unfortunately, these are the hard times for honey bees. Back in 2006, the sudden and mysterious disappearance of honey bees was first recorded in the United States. Since then, the bees are continuing to disappear without trace, at an accelerating rate and all over the world. This frightening and unusual phenomenon is named Colony collapse disorder (CCD), and it doesn’t only affect our honey supplies but also endangers the agricultural crops worldwide, which are pollinated by bees. The exact cause of the syndrome is not yet understood, but scientific evidence from Europe suggests that modern use of pesticides somehow affects the nervous and immune system of the bees, causing them to vanish from the face of Earth. If the problem doesn’t get solved urgently we may be facing a large crisis in food production. I’m sure that you know that what we eat changes our health, our environment and our communities. So, if you want to help in this issue, remember that each time you eat you vote with your fork. Choose organically grown food and help shape a better, honeybee-friendly world. You could also grow a small organic garden in your backyard or plant some flowers around your house to provide beautiful, fragrant and natural habitat for many animal species.
In perfumery, the honey note is distinguished by its soft and balsamic sweet chords, ideal to underline and emphasize floral notes. The scent, as well as the taste of honey, depends on its sort: it can be predominantly woodsy, floral, herbal, or even tobacco-scented. This note used to introduce gourmand nuance in the composition, and it is typically created from beeswax combined with various other molecular ingredients that are usually found in organic honey.
For example, a perfumer may combine the scent of Black Locust flower for floral types, or use Pine Tree extract to achieve a honeydew honey note. The bee’s wax absolute is obtained from the honeycombs of European bee - Apis mellifera – and extracted with ethanol and the ethanol evaporated. In this process, the bee’s wax absolute retains some of the aromatic molecules of the waxy substance. Honey can also be solvent extracted to produce an absolute which is highly fragrant and typically used in perfumery to render golden-ambery notes.
The honey note is soothing and comforting; it beautifully equilibrates the composition and adds rich and warm backdrop for other ingredients. If you wish to explore the honey note, try to find it in the sweetness of Thierry Mugler’s Angel, which is a perfect example of the gourmand fragrance category. The Serge Lutens’s Miel de Bois opens with a sweet and radiant honey note, while Red Door by Elizabeth Arden, uses honey for the base to convey a message of opulence and luxury. You can enjoy the aroma of honey in Miel d`Oranger by Yves Rocher - a fragrance for women and its accompanying collection of body care products. Something similar can also be found in Miel & Vanille (Honey & Vanilla) line by L`Occitane en Provence. If you seek modern commercial editions with honey note, the Lollipop Bling Honey Perfume By Mariah Carey could be just what you need.
You could also use our search by notes to embark on your own quest for more great fragrances with honey.
Author: Marina Milojević (Mary)
Fragrantica Writer, Translator & Editor
lat. Moschus Moschiferus
Group: Animal Sources
Musk Moschus Moschiferus
Musk Moschus Moschiferus
Musk Moschus Moschiferus
Odor profile: Naturally the essence derived by the perineal glands of the Tibetan musk deer, now endangered and protected. Synthetically replicated in a plethora of variations for fixation and warming fragrance compositions.
Musk is a whole class of fragrant substances used as base notes in perfumery. This wonderful animalistic note creates a groundwork on which the rest of the aromatic shades and nuances of the composition rest. Musk is the most commonly used raw material, present in almost all fragrant compositions. You can easily check this claim by using our search for notes. What makes it so indispensible in the perfume industry is its unique property to balance the composition and add a subtle touch of sensuality and warmth. It is also prized as a wonderful fixative, which reduces the evaporation rate and allows the original composition to last longer while keeping its true fragrance.
Musk is a name that originally designated a strong-smelling brownish substance secreted by the male of the musk deer of the genus Moschus. Each of the adult male representatives of this animal species has a musk gland that lies in a sac positioned between the genitals and the umbilicus, and secretes powerful pheromones used to attract mates. It has been rumored since ancient times that wonderful musk odor works as an excellent aphrodisiac, and modern science has offered an explanation for this. Even though the debate on the existence of sex pheromones continues, there are scientists who believe that the smell of musk closely resembles the smell of testosterone, which may act as a pheromone in humans.
The term "musk" is often used to describe a wide range of musky substances, typically animalistic notes such as Civet, Castoreum, and Hyrax, or various synthetic musks, known as white musks, which are created in chemical laboratories. The original deer musk has been used and prized for thousands of years as one of the most precious raw materials in perfumery. This lovely animal is still found in the mountain forests of India, Pakistan, Tibet, China, Siberia and Mongolia, even though classified as threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). The musk deer populations could be driven out of existence because of the black-market price for the musk from their glands that reaches almost $45,000 per kilogram. This is one of the most expensive natural products in the world, even more valuable than gold—the all-time highest price of gold ever recorded is $1,913.50 per ounce (there are 0.0284 kilograms per ounce). What is really worrying is that only a few tens of grams can be extracted from a single animal and around 160 deer need to be killed for each kilogram of musk collected. It is possible to remove the gland without killing the animal but, unfortunately, this is hardly ever done.
Deer musk has been used since antiquity and some of the first references of its use in the perfume industry point to Arab and Byzantine perfume makers of the 6th century. It was generously used by the caliphs of Baghdad and highly regarded among the Arabs. This fragrant material was even added to mortared walls of mosques during their construction, to emanate the wonderful fragrance whenever it’s warmed by the sun. Al-Kindi, the famous Philosopher of the Arabs, who wrote hundreds of original treatises on a range of subjects, including perfumes, mentioned this ingredient in many of the perfume recipes, making it one of the mostly prized luxury goods imported from the East. However, musk was not used only for its olfactory features but also because of its curative properties. The Arab and Tibetan healers used it as a stimulant for male health; Ayurvedic practitioners used it in the treatment of cardiac, mental and neurological disorders, and it still holds as one of the most important ingredients in traditional Chinese medicine, being included in the recipes of more than 300 different medicines.
In perfumery, the term “musk” doesn’t always apply to a concrete perfume component, but rather designates the overall impression of the fragrant composition. Natural aroma of musk is very complex and usually described with so many contradictory attributes. It's description may range from sweet, creamy or powdery, to rich, leathery, spicy and even woodsy. Most typically, the musk note is described as an animalistic nuance, with a lively and oscillating, often contrasting nature. The typical musky smell develops from the natural musk tincture once the volatile parts have evaporated, allowing the sensual and warm “true musky” notes to come up to the surface.
Until the late 19th century, natural musk was extensively used in the creation of perfumes before it became much too expensive and controversial. Luckily, there are some plants that share similar olflactory properties with musk, capable of producing musky-smelling macrocyclic lactone compounds.
Ambrette by Bob Richmond
Many of these plants, such as Garden Angelica (Angelica archangelica), Musk Flower (Mimulus moschatus) Abelmosk or Ambrette seeds (Abelmoschus moschatus), are now widely used as a substitute for animal musks.
Musk Flower by alexlomas
In 1888, the scientist Albert Baur was the first to discover an artificial musk. This was a completely accidental discovery that occurred while the scientist was experimenting with TNT explosives. After an attempt to produce a more effective form of trinitrotoluene, he suddenly noticed a very pleasant musky-like odor in the air and attributed it to, what was later named, nitro-musk. This was the first member of the family of synthetic musks, but it was banned from use due to its instability and potential toxicity. Later on, polycyclic musk and macrocyclic musk classes were developed, of which the first one is most commonly used in modern perfumery. Macrocylic musks are derived from plants and they most closely resemble the natural scent of musk, but their production is more costly. Another interesting fact about macrocylic musks is that around half of the population cannot detect their smell in a fragrant composition. For this reason, successful perfumers usually combine a variety of musks in the formula in order to truly convey the original idea behind the fragrance.
The use of natural musk was prohibited in 1979, when the musk deer was protected as an endangered species. Today, white musk note is one of the most commonly used in creation of perfumes, offering a more ethical approach and being less expensive than the natural musk. Some of the wonderful perfumes highlighting this note are Serge Lutens' Clair de Musc, Montale's White Musk, Il Profvmo's Musc Bleu, and Narciso Rodriguez For Her. Michael Boadi’s musky quartet from the Illuminum collection plays with the musk olfactory group in four different compositions and perfectly illustrates the broadness of this term: Cashemere Musk, Rajamusk , Piper Leather and Wild Berry Blossom.
Author: Marina Milojević (Mary)
Fragrantica Writer, Translator & Editor
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ادو تویلت مردانه وان میلیون دلار پاکو رابان 100 میل Paco Rabanne 1 Million $ Eau De Toilette For Men 100mlعطری جذاب و خاصمناسب همه سنین و آقایانمناسب مجالس رسمی برای سفارش پیامکی کافی است کد c823 را به شماره 10005420 ارسال نمایید.
ادو تویلت مردانه پاکو رابان وان میلیون اینتنس 50 و 100 میل Paco Rabanne 1 Million Intense Eau De Toilette For Men 50-100 ml برای سفارش پیامکی کافی است کد c824 را به شماره 10005420 ارسال نمایید.
ادو پرفیوم مردانه پاکو رابان وان میلیون ابسولوتلی گلد 100 میل Paco Rabanne 1 Million Absolutely Gold Eau De Parfum For Men 100 ml عطری از سحر و جادو که با رایحه پرتقال شروع و به سمت رایحه چرم حرکت می کند برای سفارش پیامکی کافی است کد c764 را به شماره 10005420 ارسال نمایید.
ادو پرفیوم زنانه پاکو رابان لیدی میلیون 30 و 50 و 80 میلPaco Rabanne Lady Million Eau De Parfum For Women 30-50-80mlیكی از مشهورترین عطرهایی است كه در چند سال گذشته تولید شده استاگر خانمی بخواهد میلیونر شود یا شبیه به زنان میلیون دلاری شود ما این را با عطر لیدی میلیون! تضمین می كنیم برای سفارش پیامکی کافی است کد c765 را به شماره 10005420 ارسال نمایید.
ادو تویلت زنانه پاکو رابان میلیون لیدی ئی مای گلد 30 و 50 و 80 میل Paco Rabanne Lady Million Eau My Gold Eau De Toilette For Women 30-50-80 mlویژگی های اصلی لیدی میلوینها که لوکس بودن و تجمل گرایی می باشد برای سفارش پیامکی کافی است کد c766 را به شماره 10005420 ارسال نمایید.
ادو تویلت مردانه پاکو رابان بلک ایکس اس 50و100 میل Paco Rabanne Black XS Eau De Toilette For Men 50-100 ml باب طبع آقایان شیک پوش برای سفارش پیامکی کافی است کد c768 را به شماره 10005420 ارسال نمایید.
ادو تویلت مردانه پاکو رابان بلک ایکس اس ال اکسز فور هیم 50 و 100 میلPaco Rabanne Black XS L’Exces for him Eau De Toilette For Men 50-100mlدر اوایل ورود این محصول به بازار جهانی استقبال چشمگیری از این محصول شد به طوری که بعد از چند روز اول از معرفی آن تیراژ فروش آن به چند صد برابر رسید و خیلی ها برای خریدن این محصول روزها چشم به پشت ویترین فروشگاهای معتبر...
ادوتویلت مردانه پاکو رابان بلک ایکس اس لا فرودیزیاک 100 میل Paco Rabanne Black XS L'Aphrodisiaque Eau De Toilette for Men for men 100 mlلافرودیزیاک در معنای لغوی یعنی اکسیر غرایز جنسی که در شیشه ای سیاه و به همان اندازه جذاب قرار دارد برای سفارش پیامکی کافی است کد c771 را به شماره 10005420 ارسال نمایید.
ادو تویلت مردانه پاکو رابان بلک ایکس اس بی ا لجند ایگی پاپ 100 میل Paco Rabanne Black XS Be a Legend Iggy Pop Eau De Toilette For Men 100mlاین عطر الهام گرفته شده از موسیقی راک می باشد برای سفارش پیامکی کافی است کد c772 را به شماره 10005420 ارسال نمایید.
ادو تویلت زنانه پاکو رابان بلک ایکس اس پتیشن 80 میلPaco Rabanne Black XS Potion Eau De Toilette For Women 80mlبلک ایکس اس بعنوان سمبلی از عشق واقعی تصور می شود برای سفارش پیامکی کافی است کد c774 را به شماره 10005420 ارسال نمایید.
ادو پرفیوم زنانه پاکو رابان بلک ایکس اس لافرودیزیاک Paco Rabanne Black XS L'Aphrodisiaque Eau De Parfum For Womenلافرودیزیاک در معنای لغوی یعنی اکسیر غرایز جنسی که در شیشه ای سیاه و به همان اندازه جذاب قرار دارد برای سفارش پیامکی کافی است کد c775 را به شماره 10005420 ارسال نمایید.
ادو تویلت مردانه پاکو رابان اینویکتوس 50 و 100 میل Paco Rabanne Invictus Eau De Toilette For Men 50-100mlاین عطر در جولای 2013 عرضه شد که معادل لاتین آن invincible (شکست ناپذیر) و به معنای قدرت،تحرک و انرژی می باشد برای سفارش پیامکی کافی است کد c777 را به شماره 10005420 ارسال نمایید.
ادو پرفیوم زنانه پاکو رابان المپیا 30 و 50 و 80 میل Paco Rabanne Olympea Eau de Parfum For women 30-50-80mlعطر المپیا تداعی گر اساطیر و الهه های مدرن یونان که سمبل قدرت،تحرک و پیروزی بوده اند می باشد. برای سفارش پیامکی کافی است کد c778 را به شماره 10005420 ارسال نمایید.
ادو تویلت مردانه پاکو رابان التراویولت 50 و 100 میلPaco Rabanne Ultraviolet Eau De Toilette For Men 50-100 ml عطر الترا ویولت مردانه پاکو رابان بسیار محبوب و پر طرفدار می باشد،این عطر شدیدتر و تحریک آمیز تر از ورژن زنانه خود می باشد برای سفارش پیامکی کافی است کد c779 را به شماره 10005420 ارسال نمایید.
ادو پرفیوم زنانه پاکو رابان الترا ویولت Paco Rabanne Ultraviolet Eau De Parfum For womenاین عطر در گروه رایحه گل های شرقی دسته بندی میشه و بسیار قوی و تاثیر گذار می باشد برای سفارش پیامکی کافی است کد c780 را به شماره 10005420 ارسال نمایید.
ادو تویلت مردانه پاکو رابان الترا ویولت سامر پاپ میلPaco Rabanne Ultraviolet Man Summer Pop for men Eau De Toilette For Men گروه بویایی: آروماتیک چوب و مرکبات برای سفارش پیامکی کافی است کد c781 را به شماره 10005420 ارسال نمایید.
ادو تویلت مردانه پاکو رابان پور هومPaco Rabanne POUR HOMME Eau De Toilette For menعطر پورهوم از قدیمی ترین محصولات پاکو رابان می باشد که رایحه ای آرامش بخش دارد برای سفارش پیامکی کافی است کد c785 را به شماره 10005420 ارسال نمایید.
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