عطر با رایحه‌ی چوب و خزه

نت‌های چوبی مطمئن و منعطف هستند، و به عنوان برگ برندۀ یک عطرساز ماهر، اساس ترکیب را فراهم می‌کنند و عناصر دیگر را بنا به خواص بویشی‌شان تقویت می کنند. تعداد کمی از نت‌های چوبی به عنوان نت بالا یا وسط به کارمی‌روند، مانند چوب بلسان بنفش  rosewood.

مشخصات بویی چوب‌ها بسته به درختان مختلف شدیدا تغییر می‌کند. بعضی از آنها بوی پایدار و فنولی phenolic دارند، مانند چوب گایاک guiacwood . بعضی دیگر بوی تند و تلخی دارند و یادآور یک بسته مداد نو و جدید هستند، مانند چوب سرو  cedarwood. بعضی چوب‌ها هم بوی خامه‌ای، شیری، شامه‌نواز و عمیقا ملایمی دارند، مانند چوب صندل sandalwood . نت‌های چوبی‌ای هم وجود دارد که به قدری خاص هستند که کل ترکیب را تحت تاثیر قرار می‌دهند: چوب آگار / عود Agarwood/Oud به قدری بوی پیچیده و قوی دارند که بوهای آجیلی، چوبی، کهنگی و نا، و حتی کافور را نیز دربرمی گیرند (بر‌آنها اثر می‌گذارند)، و محصولات جانبی درخت Aquillaria برای درمان بیماری قارچی نیز مفید است. نت کاج pine یا صنوبر fir ، به لطف تداعی معانی ما را به یاد فصل‌های خاصی می‌اندازند.

بعضی نت‌های چوبی با روش‌های طبیعی تهیه می‌شوند، مانند خیساندن و تقطیر تراشه‌های واقعی چوب. نت‌های دیگر و همچنین بعضی از آنهایی که می‌توان با روش طبیعی به دست آورد با ساخت آزمایشگاهی تهیه می‌شوند. دلیل این کار پایداری عطرها، مقرون به صرفه بودن و ایمنی است.

خس‌خس و نعنای هندی استثناهای جالب این گروه از نت‌های چوبی هستند، چون خس‌خس در واقع یک نوع علف است که سیستم ریشه‌ای پیچیده‌ای دارد و نعنای هندی برگ یک بوته شرقی است، اما ویژگی بویشی آنها چوبی است و درنتیجه در این دسته جای می‌گیرند. نت‌های چوبی بهترین پایه برای عطرهای مردانه هستند، آن هم به دلیل تداعی معنی نیرومندی که درخت‌ها به ذهن می‌آورند و نه بوی آنها، اما انعطاف پذیری این نت‌ها موجب می‌شود بتوان به عنوان پایه عطرهای زنانه و مشترک هم از آنها استفاده کرد. درحقیقت عطرهای معدودی هستند که حداقل از یک نت چوبی در ترکیبشان استفاده نشده باشد.

خزه‌ها زیرگروهی از این نت هستند زیرا ارگانیسم گلسنگی انگلی دارند و روی درخت‌ها رشد می‌کنند، مانند خزه درختی (Evernia furfuracea) و گلسنگ (Evernia prunastri) . پروفایل بویی خزه‌ها غیرقابل جایگزینی است، با این حال در صنعت عطرسازی تلاش زیادی شده تا مولکول‌هایی با همان بو ایجاد کنند زیرا این مواد از طرف انجمن عطرسازی بین‌المللی (IFRA) سهمیه‌بندی شده‌است.

خزه‌ها بوی جوهری- تلخی دارند و تیرگی عمیق و نگران‌کننده و رنگ سبز تیره‌ای که دارند کف جنگل را در فصل پاییز تداعی می‌کند. به همین دلیل به عنوان تقویت‌کنندۀ خانوادۀ عطرهای سرخسی و چایپری chypre استفاده می‌شوند؛ درحقیقت، گلسنگ یک پای آکورد سه گانه‌ای است که اساس این دو دسته را تشکیل می‌دهد. ویژگی این نت‌ها زمینی، افسرده، درون‌نگر و تیره است و به رایحه‌های قدیمی حالت متمایزی می‌دهد.

عطر با رایحه چوب و خزه WOODS AND MOSSES 22 محصول وجود دارد

زیرشاخه‌ها

  • عطر با رایحه نعناع هندی Indian Patchouli

    نعناع هندی Indian Patchouli

    نعناع هندی Indian Patchouliنعناع هندی Indian Patchouliنعناع هندی Indian Patchouli

    Odor profile: An exotic bush that grows mainly in India, the leaves of which produce the essential oil of patchouli. Sweet, dark, with an earthy, woody edge, it is very popular in many blends, especially the contemporary woody floral musks. Synthetics and fractal extractions of the material also abound.

    Patchouli is a wonderful green bushy herb of the mint family. It belongs to the genus Pogostemon and grows up to two or three feet in height. The herb is graced with delicate pinkish-white flowers and aromatic leaves that have been used for centuries in perfumery, due to their wonderful and strong scent. Patchouli is native to tropical regions of Asia, but it grows well in all warm to tropical climates. Nowadays, several varieties of the Pogostemon genus are cultivated allover Asia, West Africa and South America for their aromatic oil known as patchouli oil.

    The name patchouli derives from the old Tamil words patchai, meaning "green", and ellai meaning "leaf". The origin of the name points out to the native land of this herb, stemming from the Dravidian language spoken mostly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. The plant was brought to the Middle East along the silk route, and it was thanks to the famous conqueror Napoleon Bonaparte that patchouli reached Europe. Napoleon brought to France a couple of patchouli-scented cashmere shawls that he found in Egypt. The shawls were redolent of patchouli oil, which was used to repel insects and protect them from moths, but the origin of the scent was held as closely guarded secret. Wonderful patterns of the oriental fabrics have soon become easy to replicate, but sneaky European manufacturers were still forced to import the fragrant oil from the East. The secret was finally broken in 1837, when Francisco Manuel Blanco first described patchouli as Mentha cablin, revealing the secret of the mysterious oriental scent to the rest of the western world.

    The world’s major craze for patchouli happened in the Europe and America during the 1960s and 1970s. This pungent scented oil that bears a strong reference to India was typically worn by the hippies, who were often associated with the Hare Krishna movement. Unfortunately, the hippies contributed to the bad reputation of patchouli oil because they were typically wearing very bad synthetic formulations. The association of patchouli with the hippie culture finally resulted in misperception of this raw material, and for most of us today, patchouli is just a synonym for too heady, too overwhelming and too common fragrance. Here is an example taken from the UrbanDictionary:

    patchouli

        1. A plant that smells like a Grateful Dead concert.
        2. Not a shower, contrary to San Franciso's public policy on hygiene.
        3. Slang term for Filty Filthy Hippie

    "No hipppie, that's a bad hippie. Patchouli is not a shower!"

    Of course, this example only illustrates another common fallacy and everyone who seriously wishes to explore the wonderful world of perfumery should remember that patchouli is the elementary unit of the entire class of perfumes – the chypre fragrances. The scent of patchouli is described as earthy and herbaceous with rich green heart and a woodsy base. The olfactory profile of patchouli oil, however, strongly depends on the cultivation techniques, time of the harvest, the process of drying and distillation techniques. The highest quality oil is obtained from only 3-4 top pairs of mature leaves, where the highest concentration of the purest oil is found. Proper drying is ensured by placing the cut stems and leaves on a dry surface and turning them over frequently to prevent rapid fermentation. When the process is complete, the leaves are stripped from the stems and placed in woven baskets to allow fermentation and release of their wonderful aroma. The final quality will also depend on the skill of the grower, who controls the level of fermentation by using his own nose. Only a small number of distilleries is specialized in production of this highly refined extract which finds its use in haute parfumerie.

    Patchouli oil is obtained by steam distillation or CO2-extraction of the dried leaves. The oil has a rich, balsamic and herbaceous flavor with a minty-woody undertone. Patchouli absolute is a dark green liquid obtained by the solvent extraction of dried leaves. The absolute has a rich, pronouncedly sweet and herbaceous aroma with woody-balsamic undertone. They both blend perfectly with oriental bouquets, chypre and fougère-type fragrances, and powdery perfumes. Patchouli blends well with vetiver, which contains the same earthy olfactory profile, sandalwood, cedarwood, clove, lavender, rose, labdanum, and so on.

    One of the most wonderful features of patchouli oil is that it becomes even better with aging. Freshly distilled oil may appear more green, tart and unmelodious in comparison to well aged oil that has a rich and full fruity-like nuance.

    In the opus of L Artisan Parfumeur, there are two patchouli-dominated fragrances: the oriental fragrance for women Patchouli Patch, and oriental-woody men’s fragrance Voleur de Roses.

    The floral woody musky fragrance for women Nuits de Noho, by Bond No9, features patchouli in the top notes, while Lorenzo Villoresi’s unisex Patchouli offers straightforward interpretation of this herb, laid on a base of woodsy and musky notes. Let me also mention a vintage creation, Patchouli Pour Homme by Reminiscence. Launched in 1970, this fragrance features geranium, cedar and patchouli in the middle notes.

    Among the oriental woody fragrances, I would single out two wonderful unisex scents: Montale’s Patchouli Leaves and Borneo 1834 by Serge Lutens. More refined, softer, and ultimately feminine interpretation of patchouli is offered in oriental vanilla fragrance for women - Angel by Thierry Mugler.

  • عطر با رایحه چوب های جنگلی Woody Notes

    چوب های جنگلی Woody Notes

    چوب های جنگلی Woody Notesچوب های جنگلی Woody Notesچوب های جنگلی Woody Notes

    Odor profile: Umbrella term used to refer to fragrance notes coming from woody materials (trees mostly, as well as some bushes -such as patchouli- or a few grasses -such as vetiver).

  • عطر با رایحه چوب آگار Agarwood Oud

    چوب آگار ((Agarwood (Oud)

    چوب آگار Agarwood Oudچوب آگار Agarwood Oudچوب آگار Agarwood Oud

    Agarwood (Oud)
    lat. Aquilaria agallocha i A. malaccensis (Thymelaeaceae)
    Group: Woods and Mosses
    Agarwood (Oud) Aquilaria agallocha i A. malaccensis (Thymelaeaceae)
    Agarwood (Oud) Aquilaria agallocha i A. malaccensis (Thymelaeaceae)
    Agarwood (Oud) Aquilaria agallocha i A. malaccensis (Thymelaeaceae)
    Odor profile: The pathological secretion of the aquillaria tree, a rich, musty woody-nutty scent that is highly prized in the Middle East. In commercial perfumery it's safe to say all "oud" is a recreated synthetic note.





    Common name: Agarwood, oudh, agalocha
    Plant family: Thymelaeceae
    Genus: Aquilaria
    Species: There are about 15 species of the genus Aquilaria
     

    Agarwood is reputed to be the most expensive wood in the world. There are many names for the resinous, fragrant heartwood produced primarily by trees in the genus Aquilaria. Most commonly, the resin is known as agarwood, aloeswood, eaglewood, gaharu, agalocha or oudh (In Arabic).


    Aquilaria crassna from freeland.org  Critically Endangered
    "The ability of surviving trees to grow and reproduce is dramatically reduced".
     

    Agarwood has been used to make high quality incense since centuries. The Chinese describe its smell as "a sweet, deep but balanced fragrance" and use it in religious and festive celebrations, and so do Arabian, Indian and Japanese people. Agarwood is also part of many traditional pharmacopoeias, dating back to medieval times and Chinese doctors still prescribe it for colds and disgestion problem. Oil extracted from agarwood is used in Arabian countries as a perfume.

    Agarwood is a resinous heartwood that occurs in trees belonging to the species of Aquilaria, Aetoxylon (A.symeatalum) and Gonystylus genus of Thymelaeceae family. However, species of the genus Aquilaria are mostly known for the production of agarwood - it's a fast growing, evergreen tree.



    Aquilaria crassna saplings. 4weeks after germination, 4inches tall by rwsphoto
     

    Agarwood or oudh forms as a reaction to fungal or bacterial attack. Trees, ocassionally become infected with a parasite mould secrete a fragrant, protective oil into wounded areas (roots, branches or sections of the trunk), which gradually become harder and dark brown to black. The heartwood (central part of a tree, which is darker in color than the sapwood) is relatively light and pale color before infection. Normally harvesters would cut only the infected parts in the hope that the tree would produce more of this resinous wood.



    Aquilaria tree showing the infected darker part - agarwood by lamcs52
     

    Aquilaria species that produce agarwood are found throughout Asia, while occur naturally in South and Southeast Asia. The Indian sub-continent was the main source of agarwood for many centuries but as trees became scarce in the middle of the twentieth century, extraction intensified in Indochina. Later on it was extended to Indonesia and Malaysia. Today Agarwood plantations exist in a number of countries, including Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Laos, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, Thailand and Vietnam.



    Aquilaria with darker agarwood by lamcs52
     

    It can grow on a wide range of soils, including poor sandy soil. Seedlings of most species establish best in shady, moist conditions, but large adult trees sometimes become emergent in the forest and can withstand full sun. Some species can be found growing on steep, rocky, exposed slopes, and in regions that experience a hot, dry season. The trees grow to 6-20 m tall.

    The leaves are alternate, 5-11 cm long and 2-4 cm broad, with a short acuminate apex and an entire margin. The flowers are yellowish-green, produced in an umbel, the fruit is a woody capsule 2.5-3 cm long. At least fifteen species of Aquilaria trees are known to produce Agarwood.

    Following are the species that produce agarwood: (Wikipedia)

    Aquilaria khasiana, found in India
    Aquilaria apiculina, found in Philippines
    Aquilaria baillonil, found in Thailand and Cambodia
    Aquilaria baneonsis, found in Vietnam
    Aquilaria beccarain, found in Indonesia
    Aquilaria brachyantha, found in Malaysia
    Aquilaria crassna, found in Cambodia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam
    Aquilaria cumingiana, found in Indonesia and Malaysia
    Aquilaria filaria, found in China
    Aquilaria grandiflora, found in China
    Aquilaria hilata, found in Indonesia and Malaysia
    Aquilaria malaccensis, found in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, and India
    Aquilaria microcapa, found in Indonesia and Malaysia
    Aquilaria rostrata, found in Malaysia
    Aquilaria sinensis, found in China
    Aquilaria subintegra, found in Thailand
     

    Aquillaria Malacenensis is considered to be the queen of Indonesian oudh. This tree can grow about 40 M or 131.23 ft in height with its diameter 80 cm. It is the best producer of agarwood resin and oil in Indonesia.

    Agarwood is exported in various forms (wood chips, powder, oil and as finished products such as perfumes, incense and medicines), and the main importers are countries in the Middle and Far East - in particular the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia (where agarwood is known as oudh), as well as Hong Kong, Taiwan and Japan.

    EXTRACTION METHOD

    There are three methods through which agarwood oil is distilled namely, hydro-distillation, steam distillation and super critical CO2 extraction. However, the most common methods of distillation are hydro-distillation and steam distillation. Another thing that has its mark on the distillation of the oil is the age of the tree. Older trees have a higher resin content and just like a wine, old resin gets better with age. Speaking of the grading of agarwood oil, the best quality oil comes out from first distillation and after this the wood undergoes for second distillation and hence, it is graded accordingly the number of times it is cooked.

    Oil coming from steam distillation is said to lack the three-dimensional smoky quality which comes from hydro-distilled oil. In both methods, after the oil has been distilled, it is filtered, sunned, and aged for a while. The more the oil aged, the better it will smell.

    When is it needed to develop synthetic substitutes?

    Development of synthetic substitutes usually arises when sustainable supplies of the natural product are not available and are expensive at the same time. Since, Agarwood cannot be synthesized, chemical substitutes are already available for perfume these are cheap and constitute the least profitable end of the market. In addition, these products do not come even close in mimicking the natural product. The major chemical components responsible for the characteristic scent of Agarwood products, sesquiterpenes, can in principle be synthesized. However, these are very complicated structures that will be extremely expensive to synthesize, which makes it commercially completely unattractive.

    So the major difference in fragrances of oudh oil and synthetic oudh can be distinguished easily. Oudh smells heavenly, woody and balsamic and surrounds a warm aura of bitter sweet and woody nuance. Whereas, synthetic oudh smells plain woody, leathry and lacks that warm balsmic aura.

    WHY IS AGARWOOD EXPENSIVE?

    Low yield from plant material, typical and labor intensive process of extraction. These are all very few reasons of high costing of Agarwood Oil. Low grade of resinous wood is used for oil production normally require minimum 20kg to produce 12ml of oil.
    According to Nabeel Adam Ali, the director of Swiss Arabian Perfumes, the highest-quality oudh, once upon a time, came from trees older than 100 years. Having said that, it doesn't mean that the new trees don't get a good fragrance but what is missing is the quality, the heritage and the tradition. Still, sales of oudh-based perfumes continue to grow each year, but to meet the demand, many perfumers have started to using a blend of natural and synthetic oud. (New York Times)

    Mr. Ajmal estimates that roughly 20 years ago, a kilogram, or 2.2 pounds, of high-quality "e-grade" oud -- the entry-level grade among the best oud quality grades -- would cost about 1,800 dirhams, or $500.

    Now, that same amount would cost 12,000 dirhams, he said, a staggering increase in price. For those who are willing to spend as much as 200,000 dirhams per kilogram, the highest-quality oudh is still available. But Mr. Ajmal said that at that price, the profit margins are slim. (New York Times)

    It has been estimated to be 18.000 euros for one kilo from the current market price.It is basically used in Natural Perfumery for long lasting and for increased weight in Natural Perfumes.
     



    Another reason of agarwood being expensive is a threat to becoming endangered. The most important resin-producing species of Aquilaria are A. agollocha, A. malaccensis and A. crassna. A. malaccensis is protected worldwide under the CITES  (The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) convention as well as by the World Conservation Union, IUCN. A. crassna was listed as an endangered species few years back by the Vietnamese Government but is now listed as a protected species in Vietnam.

    USES OF AGARWOOD


    An important use of agarwood is the production of incense. Agarwood is an aphrodisiac, both in oil form, and as incense. These are generally topical uses but the oil is also sold in Vietnamese pharmacies for internal use with the same goal. Chinese medicine uses powdered Aquilaria as a treatment for cirrhosis of the liver and for other medicines. It has also been used as a treatment for lung and stomach tumors.
     

    For perfume recommendations, please take a look at the article Why is oud so popular?
     


    Author: Naheed Shoukat Ali  (naheed)
    Fragrantica Writer

  • عطر با رایحه چوب بلسان بنفش نوعی...

    چوب بلسان بنفش (نوعی اقاقیا) برزیلی (Brazilian Rosewood)

    چوب بلسان بنفش نوعی اقاقیا برزیلی Brazilian Rosewoodچوب بلسان بنفش نوعی اقاقیا برزیلی Brazilian Rosewood

    Brazilian Rosewood
    lat. Dalbergia nigra
    Other names: Bois de Rose
    Group: Woods and Mosses
    Brazilian Rosewood Dalbergia nigra
    Brazilian Rosewood Dalbergia nigra
    Odor profile: Popular woody note that gives a lightly rosy, fragrant tonality to both masculine and feminine perfumes.

    Brazilian Rosewood is actually a member of the legume species. It grows only in Brazil and is a threatened species due to loss of its native habitat.

    The Dalbergia nigra tree produces a hard wood known for its beautiful aroma as well as the the beauty of its intense and varied colors, ranging from brick red to dark violet brown, with the most desirable woods possessing a random pattern of lines referred to as "spider webbing." The wood offers a unique resonance and is therefore prized for the making of guitars, lutes and other musical instruments. Its durability also made it a popular choice for furniture.

  • عطر با رایحه چوب صندل Sandalwood

    چوب صندل (Sandalwood)

    چوب صندل Sandalwoodچوب صندل Sandalwoodچوب صندل Sandalwood

    Sandalwood
    lat. Santalum Album
    Group: Woods and Mosses
    Sandalwood Santalum Album
    Sandalwood Santalum Album
    Sandalwood Santalum Album
    Odor profile: The classic oriental woody note, milky, soft, sturdy, rich, with a green top note and a satisfying lingering scent. The best quality used to be the Mysore sandalwood variety from India, nowadays greatly reduced to the point of extinction from perfumery due to shortage of the natural material (the species is protected from harvesting because it's an endangered species). Australian sandalwood and New Caledonian sandalwood are different species with a harsher odor profile.

    Sandalwood oil gives a sweet and woody fragrance and is one of the most valuable ingredients. Sandalwood is obtained from the trees of the genus Santalum. The wood is heavy and yellow in color, as well as fine-grained. It retains its fragrance for a long time. Sandalwood has been valued for its fragrance, carving, medical and religious qualities. It is used in preparing all types of perfume compositions especially Indian attars like Hina, Gulab, Kewda and Jesmine in which the natural essential oils from floral distillation are absorbed in sandalwood oil.

    Common name:
    Sandalwood, Indian sandalwood, Fragrant sandalwood, White sandalwood, Chandan, Sandal

    Botanical name: Santalum album

    Family: Santalaceae (Sandalwood family)

    Origin: India, Indonesia, Ceylon, Australia, Pacific Islands, etc. The finest quality comes from the forests of India, mostly from Karnataka, Mysore, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh.

    Plant Part: Wood

    Extraction Method: Steam

    Colour: Golden Orange with brown tones

    Consistency: Medium to Viscous

    Note: Base

    Aroma Strength: Medium
     


    HISTORY

    The documented use of Sandalwood goes back 4000 years to India, Egypt, Greece and Rome. Many temples and structures were built from Sandalwood. In Egypt, people used it in embalming.

    MYTH

    In India, people believed that termites never attack sandalwood. For that reason, they considered it a symbol of vitality. Sandalwood has been a part of the religious and spiritual traditions of India since prehistory and has been effectively used as a traditional medicine from ancient times.

    HABITAT and DISTRIBUTION

    The sandalwood tree is indigenous to mountain districts of south India and the Malayan Archipelago. Plant biologists describe that tree as indigenous to southeast Asia and having been introduced into India by traders. About 90% of the world's production of sandalwood oil is from India.
     
    BOTANY

    Sandalwood is a small evergreen tree growing to 18 m in height and 2.4 m in girth, with slender drooping branches. The tree reaches its full maturity in 60 to 80 years, which is when the center of the slender trunk (the heartwood) has achieved its greatest oil content.

    The sapwood is white and odorless while the heartwood is yellowish brown and strongly scented. Leaves are 3.5 to 4 cm in length, elliptic, lanceolate glabrous and petiolate; inflorescence terminal or axillary, paniculate cyme; flowers are bisexual, many, and brownish purple in color; perianth campanulate; there are 4 stamens, exerted, alternating with 4 rounded obtuse scales. The sandal tree grows almost exclusively in the forests of Karnataka, followed by Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh (India), Timor Islands of Indonesia etc. The sandalwood tree is not felled, but is instead uprooted in the rainy season, when the roots are richer in the precious essential oil. The best quality oil comes from the Indian province of Mysore and Tamil Nadu.

    BLENDS WELL WITH

    Sandalwood blends well with most oils. The list includes Clove Bud, Lavender, Geranium, Patchouli, Jasmine, Benzoin, Bergamot, Clary Sage, Coriander, Cypress, Fennel, Frankincense, Galbanum, Myrrh, Palmarosa, Pepper Black and Peppermint.
    AROMATIC DESCRIPTION

    Sandalwood has a rich, balsamic, sweet fragrance with delicate wood notes. The oil has a woody, exotic smell, subtle and lingering and the color is pale yellow to pale gold.
    CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS

    Sesquiterpenes; Sesquiterpenols; Sesquiterpenals; (includes 80 to 90% terpeniod alcohols including A and B-santalols [67%], which is a mixture of two primary sesquiterpenic alcohols), santalic and teresantalic acid, aldehyde, pterocarpin and hydrocarbons, isovaleric aldehyde, santene, santenone.
    EXTRATION and UTILISATION

    Sandalwood oil is obtained using steam distillation of powdered wood soaked in water for about 48 hours. Distillation is carried out at a steam pressure of 1.4-2.8 kg/cm2 for 48-75 hours. The oil content is about 10% in roots and 1.5-2% in chips which have a mixture of heartwood and sapwood.

    USAGE

    Fragrance

    The fragrance of sandalwood has relaxing properties and also reduces stress and promotes restful sleep. It is reputed to be an aphrodisiac. Sandalwood oil provides perfumes with a striking woody base note. Sandalwood smells not unlike other wood scents, except it has a bright and fresh edge with few natural analogues. When used in
    smaller proportions in a perfume, it is an excellent fixative to enhance the other fragrances. The oil from sandalwood is widely used in the cosmetic industry and is expensive.
    Aromatherapy Use

    Sandalwood is a part of traditional medical systems such as Chinese medicine and the Indian healing science known as Ayurveda. Sandalwood is commonly used for cosmetics and skin care, being useful for dry, cracked and chapped skin, rashes and acne. It is suitable for all skin types and is non-toxic.
    Spiritual Use

    Sandalwood is used in various ways in the spiritual traditions of the India. It is considered beneficial for meditation and for calming and focusing the human mind. It is used as incense in temples or on personal altars to remind us of the fragrant realms of the heavens. Deities of various kinds are fashioned from Sandalwood, then installed in a shrine or temple or placed upon the home altar. When Sandalwood was more abundant, the wood was used to construct parts of temples. Drops of sandalwood oils can be applied to the forehead, the temples or rubbed between the eyebrows before beginning rituals. In this way, it helps to set the stage and prepare the mind to begin its inward journey. This treatment also used for meditation.
    Other uses

    Sandalwood is highly prized as a wood for carving and is also used for making souvenirs and other items requiring fine workmanship. In India, the sapwood of sandal is used for wood turning, particularly toy-making; the wood comes mainly from trimmings and immature trees killed by disease. Sawdust from heartwood prepared for distillation is valuable enough to be collected and sold for use as incense for religious purposes, as well as for scenting clothes and cupboards.

    Images: album cover of sandalwood by Clinton Steeds,  sandalwood forest by madpai, Sandalwood Church by jeffk
     


    Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta

    Senior Research Fellow
    Plant Quarantine Division
    National Bearue of Plant Genetic Resources
    Pusa Campus, New Delhi

  • عطر با رایحه چوب گایاک Guaiac Wood

    چوب گایاک (Guaiac Wood)

    چوب گایاک Guaiac Woodچوب گایاک Guaiac Woodچوب گایاک Guaiac Wood

    Guaiac Wood
    lat. Bulnesia sarmienti
    Other names: Palo Santo, Champaca Wood, Palo Balsamo
    Group: Woods and Mosses
    Guaiac Wood Bulnesia sarmienti
    Guaiac Wood Bulnesia sarmienti
    Guaiac Wood Bulnesia sarmienti
    Odor profile: Exotic wood note that has tar-like, phenolic facets, imparting smoky, tarmac notes in perfumes. Coming from the Palo Santo or Tree of Life tree. Very popular in niche perfumery.

    Guaiac Wood is a small tree that is also known as guayacan. Guaiac Wood is one of the hardest and most resilient woods in the world. This wood has been used by Native Americans since 16th century in treatment of severe ailments such as herpes and syphilis. This tradition is where from the local name for Guaiac Wood - Palo Santo or Tree of Life - originates from. Guaiac Wood is typically used for engraving work and for the making of durable wooden posts. Its heartwood is brown, black or green, with elegant streaks. It also provides high-quality charcoal and a good timber.

  • عطر با رایحه چوب ماسویا Massoia Wood

    چوب ماسویا (Massoia Wood)

    چوب ماسویا Massoia Woodچوب ماسویا Massoia Wood

    Massoia
    lat. Cryptocarya massoy (Lauraceae)
    Group: Woods and Mosses
    Massoia Cryptocarya massoy (Lauraceae)
    Massoia Cryptocarya massoy (Lauraceae)
    Odor profile: Milky-smelling wood note, famously used in Santal Massoia in the boutique line of Hermes, the Hermessences.

    Massoia is a tropical tree native to New Guinea. This medium-sized tree grows in rain-forests at 400 m to 1000 m altitude. The bark of the tree is aromatic and has a pleasant sweet, coconut-like flavor. The bark is used for production of massoia bark oil, which is obtained through steam distillation. Massoia has been used in traditional medicine of New Guinea, but it has also been an article of commerce between many Asian nations.

  • عطر با رایحه خس خس Vetiver

    خس خس (Vetiver)

    خس خس Vetiverخس خس Vetiverخس خس Vetiver
    Vetiver
    lat. Vetiveria Zizanoid
    Other names: vetivert, khus
    Group: Woods and Mosses
    Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
    Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
    Vetiver Vetiveria Zizanoid
    Odor profile: Essence from the Eastern Asian weed grass Vetiveria zizanoid that falls under the woods category thanks to its musty, dry, woody scent with bitter chocolate and smoke facets. Very popular in niche perfumery and masculine fragrances. The reference vetivers are Carven's, Givenchy's and Guerlain's classic renditions.

    VETIVER – A COOL FRAGRANCE


    The best features of vetiver, the aromatic verdancy, the fragrant rootiness, the subtle, refreshing citrusiness, the enjoyable earthiness, a wonderful hint of woodiness, and a certain Guerlainesque leathery-ambery darkness in the drydown. Vetiver oil is obtained by steam distillation of roots of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides). The oil is one of the finest oriental perfumes with a persistent fragrance. In blended perfumes oil of vetiver acts as an excellent fixatives for volatile compounds. It is known for its cooling properties.

    HABITAT

    A commercially large population of Khas (Vetiver) grass grows in wet and damp environments over marshy places and riverbanks. The plant has a unique characteristic of being xerophyte (tolerates prolonged drought) but it survive under long seasonal flooding; it tolerates extreme temperature and grows over a wide range of soil pH. The grass grows luxuriantly in areas with an annual rainfall of 800 -2000 mm and temperature ranging from 22 to 400 C. Marshy riverbeds with sandy loam are best suited for this grass.
    BOTANY
     

    Common name: Vetiver
    Botanical Name – Vetiveria zizanioides
    Family: Gramineae / Poaceae

    This family is known as the grass and the nutritious family. It is so named because the plant members are grasses and the plants are known for their ability to provide nutrients to the soil.

                   Other common names

    Akar Wangi - fragrant root - name used in Java, Khus Khus – aromatic root - name used in India, Oil of tranquility - name used in Sri Lanka.

    Vetiver is a tall (1.5-2.0 m) perennial grass. It has a small stout rhizomatous stolen which gives rise to spongy, fibrous, dense roots system. Roots have aromatic properties and grow 20-30 cm deep in medium textured marginal soils under cultivation. Tremendous diversity exists with respect to pattern of growth, orientation and thickness of roots, as well as for occurrence of secondary roots. The bast region of root is the source of essential oil. The leaves are linear, narrow, erect, grassy, keeled with glabrous joint scabrid margins. Inflorescence is a panicle, up to 15-45 cm long, bearing numerous racemes in whorl on a central axis. The lower spikelets are reduced to lamena.

    The upper spikelets are narrow, acute, appressed, awnless, green, grey or purplish in colour, 4-6 mm long, arranged in pairs. One floret in spike is sessile and bisexual; this bisexual floret has a glabrous callus, 3 stamens and 2 plumose stigmas. The other floret is pedicelled and staminate. Java vetiver is non flowering type has broader leaves (1.1 mm), medium thick stems, bushy growth bearing flowers with high pollen sterility; the plants give out more branching roots with higher oil content and the oil is dextro-rotatory in nature.
     

    HISTORY and MYTH

    Vetiver has a long and rich history. In India it has been used to make blinds necessary to keep out the intense heat. When the blinds are sprinkled with water they emit the vetiver scent. In Java the root has been used for centuries in weaving mats and thatching huts. The Vetiver root is used in folk magic for its purported ability to provide safety and increase financial resources. A ritual designed to promote personal safety calls for inhaling Vetiver while visualizing one’s body as being sealed off from negative energies.

    COUNTRIES of ORIGIN


    Vetiver is native to South India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka. It is also cultivated in Reunion, the Philippines, the Comoro Islands, Japan, West Africa and South America. The oil is mainly produced in Java, Haiti and Reunion.

    PERFUME IN ITS OWN RIGHT (COOLING PERFUME)

    In World market the demand for vetiver oil is increasing day by day due to its unique odour, for which it is used in both flavour and fragrance industries. Moreover, this oil cannot be substituted with reconstituted oil and cannot be made through synthetically. Vetiver perfumes give pleasing aroma and has slow evaporation rate. Pure vetiver (Khus) root oil known in trade as “Ruh – Khus” and its use in scents since ancient time. Vetiver oil is the basis of the Indian perfume ‘Majmua’ and is the major ingredient in some 36% of all western perfumes (e.g. Caleche, Chanel No. 5, Dioressence, Parure, Opium ) and 20% of all men’s fragrances.

    Its complex chemical composition and oil odour, high solubility in alcohol that improves its miscibility with other perfumery material, makes it a unique perfumery resource for which no synthetic substitute is yet available. In addition to its own perfumery value on account of vetiver hydrocarbons compounds and carbonyl compounds, their alcohol derivatives i.e. vetiverols lend unique position to vetiver oil for perfumery applications as a valuable resource. Also, vetiverol could be acetylated with acetic anhydride to produce vetiveryl acetate.
     

    Both vetiverols and acetates have softer odours and fixative qualities, and are used as blender with high-class perfumery products. They blend well with ionone, linalool, cinnamic alcohol, oakmoss, vanila, sandalwood, patchouli and rose bases, and are frequently used in western type of fragrances having chypre, fougere, rose, violet and amber aldehyde base, and oriental fragrances and floral compounds.

    In addition to its direct perfumery applications, vetiver oil in its diluted form is extensively used in after-shave lotions, air freshners and bathing purposes, as well as flavoring syrups, ice cream, cosmetic and food preservation. Khus essence is used in cool drinks, and for reducing pungency of chewing tobacco preparations, providing sweet note to other masticatories and incense sticks.

     
    OTHER USES

    Vetiver oil is used in perfumery, cosmetics and soaps and for flavouring sherbets (Indian cool drinks).

    Dried roots are also used to perfume the linen cloths.

    The roots have been used for making screens, mats, hand fans and baskets. The screens are hung like curtains in the houses and when sprinkled water, impart a fragrant coolness to the air; they are in great demand during the summer.

    For desert coolers in summer in North India.
    Roots for preparing Sherbet or soft drink during summer, especially in North India.


    Images of vetiver: wikipedia, treesftf

     


    Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta

    Senior Research Fellow
    Plant Quarantine Division
    National Bearue of Plant Genetic Resources
    Pusa Campus, New Delhi

  • عطر با رایحه سدر Cedar


    سدر (Cedar)

    سدر Cedarسدر Cedarسدر Cedar
    Cedar
    lat. Cedrus, family Pinaceae.
    Group: Woods and Mosses
    Cedar Cedrus, family Pinaceae.
    Cedar Cedrus, family Pinaceae.
    Cedar Cedrus, family Pinaceae.
    Odor profile: austere and somber woody note coming from either the Atlas Mountains (Morocco) or the Virginia (US) cedarwood. There are also many cedar-smelling synthetics in use. Probably the most beloved woody note in the Serge Lutens line of fragrances.



    Lebanon cedar (Cedrus libani)

    Cedar, also known as Cedrus, is a genus of coniferous trees in the plant family Pinaceae, native to the mountains of Himalaya and the Mediterranean region. The oil obtained from cedarwood is one of the oldest ingredients used in perfumery. Cedarwood has a distinctive woody, spicy-resinous scent that has been used as a base note of many famous perfumes. Cedarwood is also one of the most commonly used perfume notes, mentioned at least once in the fragrant opus of every perfumer.

    Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica)

    Cedar is an evergreen tree that grows up to 30–40 meters, and has a silvery blue or greenish needle-shaped leaves tipped with yellow flowers. The bark of a tree is reddish to brown, even though a precise description depends on the type of a tree. True cedars are native to North African and Asian mountain regions, and commonly found in Lebanon, Deodar and Atlas. Lebanon Cedar (Cedrus libani) is distinguished by its cones with smooth scales; Deodar Cedar (Cedrus deodara) has a bright green to pale green cones, while Atlas Cedar (Cedrus atlantica) has a distinctive a silvery gray bark and blue-green needled leaves. Although termed cedarwood oils, most of the oils belonging to this aromatic group are obtained from distilling junipers and cypresses rather than true cedars.
        For unknown reasons, the natural forests of true cedar have nearly disappeared. Even though a national flag of Lebanon features a stylized image of cedar, the most famous cedar forest in this country now includes only 375 trees. In the ancient times, this was an immense green forest that spread across the Mount Lebanon.

    Red Virginia cedar (Juniperus virginiana), Texas cedar (Juniperus mexicana), and Chinese cedar (Chamaecyparis funebris) are the main sources of cedarwood oil used in perfumery today. This tree contains chemical components responsible for enchanting scent of woody and ambery types of fragrances. Cedarwood is very aromatic and known to be a natural repellent to moths and other insects. For this reason, it is often used for chests that store clothing and blankets, and for shoe trees that can absorb moisture and de-odorise.

    Red Virginia cedar (Juniperus virginiana)

    Cedar oil is obtained from the foliage, and sometimes the wood and roots of the tree. The essence is derived in the process of steam distillation with the yield from wood chips and sawdust of somewhere about 35 %. Cedar wood oil is yellowish or brown in color and has a characteristic, clean, balsamic woody odor with a pale undertone of sandalwood. The oil was used as the base for paints by the ancient Sumerians and in the ancient Egyptian embalming practices. In aromatherapy, it is used to calm and balance the energies, promote spirituality, cure urinary tract infections, clear up dandruff and help to discharge phlegm. Today, we mainly use cedarwood oil for its aromatic properties, in a range of fragrance applications.

    This deep base note has a typical dry and woody scent that beautifully supports higher and cheerful mid-notes of the fragrant composition. You will not go wrong if you think of cedarwood as of a grounding note. It is very calming and pure, combines very well with citrusy notes, and often encountered in fragrances for men. One of the good examples of this note is Christopher Sheldrake’s woody floral musk unisex fragrance Bois de Violette, in which cedar is combined with violet, violet and violet leaf. The whole Boix range of Serge Lutens offers note of cedar in various interpretations: oriental-woody in Bois et Fruits and Bois Oriental, tender musky in Bois et Musc, and warm and spicy in Cedre. Gourmand composition of Jo Malone’s Sweet Lime & Cedar uses this note to beautifully curve out sharpness of aromatic leaves, delicate flowers and spices.

    Other fragrances that contain cedar can be found in our search for notes.


    Author: Marina Milojević (Mary)
    Fragrantica Writer, Translator & Editor

  • عطر با رایحه سرو Cypress

    سرو (Cypress)

    سرو Cypressسرو Cypressسرو Cypress
    Cypress
    lat. Cupressus (Cupressaceae)
    Group: Woods and Mosses
    Cypress Cupressus (Cupressaceae)
    Cypress Cupressus (Cupressaceae)
    Cypress Cupressus (Cupressaceae)

    Cypress is a name that relates to the plants of the cypress family Cupressaceae, growing in the temperate regions of the world. This is a very ancient family of trees that grew more than 200 million years ago on the supercontinent Pangaea. Today, Cypresses are found on all continents except Antarctica.

  • عطر با رایحه سرو کوهی Juniper

    سرو کوهی (Juniper)

    سرو کوهی Juniperسرو کوهی Juniperسرو کوهی Juniper
    Juniper
    lat. Juniperus virginiana
    Group: Woods and Mosses
    Juniper Juniperus virginiana
    Juniper Juniperus virginiana
    Juniper Juniperus virginiana
    Odor profile: the berries of juniper comprise the characteristic aromatic bouquet of gin

    Juniper is coniferous plant in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family. Junipers vary in size, ranging from small shrubs to tall trees. The fruit grows seed cones with fleshy and fruit-like “berries” that can be red-brown or orange in color, even though they are most typically blue. The berries are very aromatic and they are typically used as a spice. Juniper berries are used as flavoring in gin.

  • عطر با رایحه گلسنگ Oakmoss

    گلسنگ (Oakmoss)

    گلسنگ Oakmossگلسنگ Oakmossگلسنگ Oakmoss
    Oakmoss
    lat. K9ngdom Plantae, division Bryophyta
    Other names: Mousse de Chene, treemoss
    Group: Woods and Mosses
    Oakmoss K9ngdom Plantae, division Bryophyta
    Oakmoss K9ngdom Plantae, division Bryophyta
    Oakmoss K9ngdom Plantae, division Bryophyta
    Odor profile: An inky, bitter-smelling forest floor evocative, prized essence coming from the lichen that grows on oak trees in Europe (harvested in the Balkans). Nowadays severely restricted under skin sensitization concerns, it is nevertheless an essential part of chypre fragrances and fougère fragrances.

     

    Oakmoss, also known as Evernia prunastri, is a species of lichen, a fungus found in mountainous temperate forests all around the Northern Hemisphere. As its name already suggests, oakmoss grows commonly on the branches and trunks of oak trees, even though it may also be found on other deciduous trees and conifers. This bushy lichen is very short, flat and has a strap-like thallus that somewhat resembles the shape of deer antlers. Oamkoss varies in color, being minty green or almost white when dry, or dark-olive green and even yellowish when wet.

    Oakmoss is one of the most commonly used raw materials, especially in chypre and Fougère types of perfumes. Often used as a fixative, it not only improves the longevity of the composition but also lends a delicate forest-like, rich and earthy aroma to the fragrant composition, leaving a natural, damp and creamy soft trail. This raw material is usually commercially grown in South-Central Europe and exported to Grasse in France, where the majority of the perfumery houses are situated. Oakmoss absolutes and extracts, derived from the lichen, have a distinctively woody, sharp and very sensual aroma that combines very well with floral and green notes, and makes a great addition to oriental type fragrances. A special type of oakmoss which grows on pine trees has a slightly different, turpentine-like smell, which makes it highly valued among perfumers.

    Oakmoss absolute can be obtained by solvent extraction or by using vacuum distillation. The one obtained by solvent extraction is dark green or even brown in color and has a strong, natural, earthy-mossy scent with a slight leather undertone. The process of vacuum distillation gives a pale yellow or green aromatic material with a very dry, earthy and bark-like flavor.
     

    For many years, oakmoss has been known as a potent dermal sensitizer that should be used with extreme caution in order to prevent adverse dermatological reactions. However, it has become very controversial in recent times, since the IFRA, a body that regulates the guidelines for safe usage of fragrant chemicals and essential oils in perfumes, has listed oakmoss as a restricted ingredient. IFRA regulations state that oak moss extracts obtained from Evernia prunastri should not be used in consumer products if their quantity exceeds 0.1%. Moreover, if the formula already contains tree moss extracts, the levels of oakmoss and tree moss extracts should be reduced in such a way that the total amount of both extracts doesn't exceed 0.1%.

    Because it is almost impossible to compose a classic chypre fragrance without a trail of natural moss, perfumers have been under a difficult challenge since 2001, trying to find a new extract that would be olfactively close to the original scent of oakmoss, and yet comply with the IFRA regulations. Following the new guidelines, many perfumery houses have reformulated their epic perfumes. Some of the many examples are Guerlain's Mitsouko and Parure, both using oakmoss as a base note. But, with a little help from modern science, Thierry Wasser, Guerlain's famous perfumer, has found his way to preserve the scent of original version and avoid changing the formulation dramatically.


    Guerlain now uses oakmoss that doesn't have the specific molecule which is not allowed by IFRA regulations. Thanks to the modern chemistry, this new raw material is a 100% pure and natural extract that complies with the amendments of IFRA. Some other perfumers have substituted oakmoss with grassy notes of patchouli and vetiver, while others use a synthetic “mossy woods” note that reproduces the deep forest-like smell.

    You can still feel the genuine “scent of the wet forest” in the creations of modern natural perfumers, who continure to use oakmoss absolute obtained by solvent extraction. Oakmoss is found in many iconic perfumes such as Paloma Picasso, in the floral-woody-green composition of Chanel #19, in Miss Dior by Dior, a chypre-floral fragrance for women, and Apercu by Houbigant. I should also mention Houbigant’s vintage Fougere Royale, with a top-note of lavender and base-notes of oakmoss and coumarin. The whole class of Fougère perfumes, consisting primarily of perfumes for men, is named in reference to this classic creation.

     


    Author: Marina Milojević (Mary)
    Fragrantica Writer, Translator & Editor

  • عطر با رایحه ناگارموتا یا روغن...

    ناگارموتا یا روغن سیپریول (Cypriol Oil or Nagarmotha)

    ناگارموتا یا روغن سیپریول Cypriol Oil or Nagarmothaناگارموتا یا روغن سیپریول Cypriol Oil or Nagarmotha
    Cypriol Oil or Nagarmotha
    lat. Cyperus scariosus
    Group: Woods and Mosses
    Cypriol Oil or Nagarmotha Cyperus scariosus
    Cypriol Oil or Nagarmotha Cyperus scariosus
    Cypriol Oil or Nagarmotha Cyperus scariosus

    Cyperus, Cypriol or Nagarmotha is a relative to papyrus. Its smell is woody with earthy and spicy nuances.

در هر صفحه
نمایش 1 - 12 از 22 آیتم
نمایش 1 - 12 از 22 آیتم
    سبد خرید : 0 محصول    

    سبد خرید من

    هیچ محصولی وجود ندارد

    ارسال رایگان! ارسال
    0 ریال مجموع

    ثبت سفارش و پرداخت

    تازه ترین مطالب

    دسته بندی سوالات متداول
    DMCA.com Protection Status