عطر ادویه‌ها

گروه ادویه‌ها گروه بسیار آشنایی در نت های عطری هستند، چراکه مدت های مدیدی است در غذاها به‌کار برده می‌شوند. بعضی از این ادویه‌ها جای مخصوص خود را در کابینت ادویه‌ها دارند، مانند دارچین cinnamon ، فلفل pepper ، میخک cloves ، گشنیز coriander ، زنجبیل ginger و غیره. بعضی دیگر هم کمی غیرعادی‌ترند، از زعفران saffron گرانبهای دستچین گرفته تا تمبرهندی tamarind و زیرهcaraway و فلفل صورتی pink pepper به رنگ گل رز. ادویه‌های واقعی همواره به صورت خشک شده هستند، اما برخی گیاهان هم هستند که رایحه تند ادویه مانندی دارند، مثل اریگانو و می‌توان آن‌ها را به صورت خشک یا تازه استفاده کرد.
ادویه‌ها به دسته‌های "تند / کوتاه" (برای مدت کوتاهی تند و سوزاننده) مانند دارچین، و "سرد / طولانی" (ملایم‌تر، با ایجاد حس خنکی به جای سوزش، و طعمی که طولانی‌تر باقی می‌ماند) مانند گشنیز coriander ، زیره caraway و هل cardamom تقسیم می‌شوند. این دسته‌بندی به عطرساز کمک می‌کند تا اثر دلخواهش را با ترکیب ادویه‌ها بنا به ادراک خود از عطر ایجاد کند. این ادویه‌ها را می‌توان با مواد مشابهی ترکیب کرد تا حسشان تقویت شود، یا عنصر مشابهی ایجاد کنند.

عطر با رایحه ادویه ها SPICES 18 محصول وجود دارد

زیرشاخه‌ها

  • عطر با رایحه دارچین Cinnamon

    دارچین Cinnamon

    دارچین Cinnamonدارچین Cinnamonدارچین Cinnamon

    Odor profile: the essence coming from the inner bark of Cinnamomum verum, an eastern tree that originates from China. Its odor is sweet and bitter, hot and sensuous, with a prolonged aftertaste. Most notable in Organza Indecence, Rousse by Lutens, Opium and Eau Lente (Diptyque)

    Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of the cinnamon tree. It's scientific name stems from Hebraic and Arabic term amomon, which means “fragrant spice plant”. The spice is used in both sweet and savory foods, and it has bin prized for centuries not only for its unique flavor but also for aphrodisiac properties. Cinnamon has been known for centuries. Egyptians have used it since 2000 BC, but the spice probably originates from China. It belongs to one of the world's most healthiest foods, and was used since antiquity not only as an important ingredient of folk medicine, but also as an embalming agent. Today it grows in Sri Lanka, India, Madagascar, Brazil , China, Vietnam, Indonesia, and the Caribbean.

  • عطر با رایحه ادویه Spicy Notes

    ادویه Spicy Notes

    ادویه Spicy Notesادویه Spicy Notesادویه Spicy Notes

    Odor profile: Fragrances belonging in the Oriental family of scents often comprise spicy notes that come from exotic parts of the world, usually the Middle and Far East: cinnamon, clove, vanilla, pepper, mace, nutmeg etc. The classification of "spicy oriental" is an oriental accented by these notes.

  • عطر با رایحه تمبر هندی Tamarind

    تمبر هندی (Tamarind)

    تمبر هندی Tamarindتمبر هندی Tamarindتمبر هندی Tamarind

    Tamarind
    lat. Tamarindus indica
    Group: Spices
    Tamarind Tamarindus indica
    Tamarind Tamarindus indica
    Tamarind Tamarindus indica
    Odor profile: Note that recalls the Tamarindus indica spice, with a bittersweet odor and an acidic profile.

     
        
    Botanical Name
    Tamarindus indica

    Family
    Leguminosae
    (Sub family: Caesalpinioideae)

    Common Name - ambli, amli, imli (Hindi), amalika (Sanskrit), tintiri, tintul, tetul (Bengali), asam jawa, assam, tambaring (Indonesia), trai me (Vietnam), makham (Thailand), siyambala, maha siyambala (Sri Lanka), etc.

    Tamarind is known as a multi-purpose tropical fruit tree and isused primarily for its fruits, which may eaten fresh or processed, used as a seasoning or spice, or the fruits and seeds can processed for non-food uses.
     


    Various geographical areas like India or the Far East or Africa are known as center of its origin but the consensus is that it is Africa. The tamarind has long been naturalized in the East Indies and the islands of the Pacific. One of the first tamarind trees in Hawaii was planted in 1797 and it was introduced much earlier into tropical America, Bermuda, the Bahamas, and the West Indies. It is mostly grown as a shade and fruit tree, along roadsides and parks in all tropical and near-tropical areas.

     

    In India, the tamarind tree is considered to be haunted by spirits and is worshipped on a day called Amli Agiaras. Hindus may also tie a tamarind tree to a mango tree before eating the fruits of the latter and in effect "marry" the species. The natives of India consider the neighborhoods in which tamarind trees grow to be unwholesome, and that it is unsafe to sleep under the tree owing to the acid it exhales during the night.


    Tamarind is a long-lived, large, evergreen or semi-evergreen tree. The trunk forks at about 1 m above ground and is often multi-stemmed with branches widely spreading, drooping at the ends and often crooked but forming a spreading, rounded crown. The bark is brownish-grey, rough and scaly. Young twigs are slender and puberulent. A dark red gum exudes from the trunk and branches when they are damaged. Leaves are alternate and even-pinnate and shortly petiolated.

    Flowers are few to several, borne in lax racemes. The sepals are four, unequal, ovate, imbricate, membranous and coloured cream, pale yellow or pink. The petals are five, imbricate, coloured pale yellow, cream, pink or white, streaked with red. Flowers are bisexual. The color of the flowers is the same on each tree; they are not mixed. The fruits are pods, oblong, curved or straight, with rounded ends, somewhat compressed and indehiscent although brittle. The pod has an outer epicarp, which is light grey or brown and scaly. Within is the firm but soft pulp, which is thick and blackish brown. The pulp is traversed by formed seed cavities, which contain the seeds. The outer surface of the pulp has three tough branched fibers from the base to the apex. Each pod contains 1-12 seeds, which are flattened, glossy, orbicular to rhomboid, and the centre of each flat side of the seed marked with a large central depression. Seeds are hard, red to purple brown, non-arillate and ex-albuminous.

    The pulp of tamarind fruit contains protein, fats, carbohydrates, fiber, calcium, phosphorus, iron, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and vitamin C. The pulp contains oil, which is greenish in color and liquid at room temperature. The major volatile constituents of tamarind pulp include furan derivatives and carboxylic acids, the components of which are furfural, palmitic acid, oleic acid and phenyl-acetaldehyde. The seed oil is golden yellow, semi-drying oil, which in some respects resembles groundnut oil.


    USES

        The pulp is usually removed from the pod and used to prepare juice, jam, syrup and candy. The acidic pulp of fruit is used as a favorite ingredient in culinary preparations such as curries, chutneys, sauces, ice cream and sherbet in countries where the tree grows naturally.

        The seeds are used for playing indoor games.
         
         It is also used to make "tamarind fish," a seafood pickle, which is considered a great delicacy. In Eastern African countries, the pulp is cooked and made into a porridge called ugali made from sorghum or maize flour or dissolved to make a sweet drink.

        In India the juice is used to preserve fish, which can be preserved for up to six months when mixed with acetic acid. Tamarind drink is popular in many countries around the world, though there are many different recipes.

        In Ghana, the pulp is mixed with sugar and honey to make a sweet drink, Jugo and fresco de tamarindo.

        In the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand, fibers are removed from the fruit pulp, which is mixed with sugar, wrapped in paper and sold as toffees. Sellers of these are a common sight in front of schools and on urban roadsides.

        Young leaves of tamarind are used as a seasoning vegetable in some Thai food recipes because of their sourness and specific aroma.
         

    Perfumes and colognes with a tamarind note include Cocoa Tamarind from Floraison collection, which has fragrance notes of Mexican tamarind with sweet orange, gardenia, clove bud and vanilla musk and Black XS for Her Paco Rabanne for women is a super popular fragrance has sharp and spicy tamarind note. Similarly, Lalique White by Lalique is a Citrus Aromatic fragrance for men has tamarind as top note and Lucky You for men by Liz Claiborne was launched in 2000 and it contains a blend of tamarind, melilotus herb, cotton flower, cardamom, cascarilla bark, musk, sandalwood, bamboo stem, rosewood and teakwood. If you want to search more fragrances then you can search by notes through Fragrantica.

    Photos: su_lin, doc(q)man, Harshad_Sharma, Mal.Smith


    Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta (cshekhar)

    Fragrantica Writer

  • عطر با رایحه دانه تونکا Tonka Bean

    دانه تونکا (Tonka Bean)

    دانه تونکا Tonka Beanدانه تونکا Tonka Beanدانه تونکا Tonka Bean
    Tonka Bean
    lat. Dipterix Odorata
    Group: Spices
    Tonka Bean Dipterix Odorata
    Tonka Bean Dipterix Odorata
    Tonka Bean Dipterix Odorata
    Odor profile: Very popular note coming from the Dipteryx odorata seeds where the principle aromatic constituent at a ration of 1-3% i coumarin (the scent of new mown hay with a bittersweet almond facet).

    Tonka Bean is one of the most common ingredients in perfumery. These black, wrinkled seeds of the Dipteryx odorata (often mentioned as "cumaru" or "kumaru") are also found in numerous other products such as soaps or tobacco, where they are used to improve aroma. Cumaru belongs to the Fabriceae family of plants and it is native to South America. Therefore, some of the world’s largest producers are countries of this region including Brazil, Venezuela and Guyana. The name “Tonka” originates from Galibi language, native to population of French Guyana. The Galibi word tonqua or tonquin translates to “bean”.


    In the Pagan and Occult tradition, Tonka bean is believed to have magical properties. Mages believe that crushed Tonka beans brewed in herbal tea may help to cure soul, relieve symptoms of depression and confusion, chase away negative thoughts and boost the immune system. It is also believed that holding the bean in one hand, while whispering a wish, leads to its fulfillment.
     

    The journey of Tonka bean to the heart of perfumery begins in 1793, when the cumaru fruit was first introduced to French people. The plant was cultivated and grown as a tropical tree with beautiful purple flowers, each containing one bean. Black Tonka beans, distinguished by their wrinkled surface, are dark brown from the inside and they spread characteristic vanilla-like flavor that reminds of the scent of cinnamon, saffron, almond and cloves. The beans are also commonly used as a replacement for vanilla and their olfactory impression has a powdery-sweet effect with intensive balmy, warm, gourmand and intoxicating character.



    Tonka bean belongs to oriental category of perfumery notes. It shares some of the common characteristics with tobacco and amber, and goes well with patchouli, sandalwood, rose, lemon peel and lavender.


    Tonka bean absolute is obtained by soaking Tonka beans in rum and letting them sit anywhere from 12 to 24 hours. The beans are then dried to let the white crystals of coumarin appear on the surface. These powdery icy crystals are known to intensify aromas of essential oil during extraction. Coumarin was first discovered in 1868, and marked with a Latin name – Dipteric Coumarou. This is the substance responsible for pleasant smell of the bean, even though it has a darker side. Coumarin is very bitter to taste, signaling that larger doses of Tonka beans may provoke serious liver damage, and even be fatal. The beans are forbidden for eating in the USA, even though numerous old recipes still list coumarin aromas for sauces, cakes and ice-creams. Nowadays, natural coumarin has been completely replaced by synthetic one.
     

    Compositions for women that contain sweet, balmy and gourmand aromas of Tonka are: Lolita Lempicka - Lolita and L, Thierry Mugler - Angel, Givenchy - Ange ou Demon, Dior Addict, Chopard Cashmir, La Prairie - Silver Rain, as well as many others, while the editions for men containing Tonka are: Thierry Mugler- A*men, Dior Fahrenheit, Jean Paul Gaultier - Le Male, YSL - L'Homme, Givenchy - Pi, Lolita Lempicka - Au Masculin etc.

    Photos: joana hard, mecredis


       Author: Sandra Raicevic Petrovic
                     (sandrina_bambina)

       Fragrantica Executive Editor, Writer and Designer

  • عطر با رایحه زعفران Saffron

    زعفران (Saffron)

    زعفران Saffronزعفران Saffronزعفران Saffron
    Saffron
    lat. Crocus Sativus Linneaus
    Group: Spices
    Saffron Crocus Sativus Linneaus
    Saffron Crocus Sativus Linneaus
    Saffron Crocus Sativus Linneaus
    Odor profile: A refined note coming from the prized stamens of Crocus sativus, a a small flower in the Iris family known since antiquity. Its odor profile is bittersweet, leathery, soft and intimate, with an earthy base note. Beautifully sweetened in the gourmand Safran Troublant (L'Artisan Parfumeur) or used as a leathery, earthy heart note in the modern chypre Agent Provocateur.



    Botanical Name – Crocus sativus

    Family – Iridaceae (Iris family)


    NAMES:

    Ayurvedic – Kumkuma, Rudhira, Vadrika, Kashmira, Kaashmiraka Agnishikhaa
    (Charaka, Sushruta), Ghusrrn, Rakta, Vaalhika, Kshataja, Keshara.

    Unani – Zaafraan

    English – Saffron

    Hindi – Kesar

    Urdu - Zafran

    Parts used - Stigma of the flower


    Saffron is an aromatic and very expensive spice by weight, is known as “King of spices” and “red gold” and utilised for cooking, staining, medicine, cosmetics and some other purposes. It is a native plant of Southeast Asia. However, exact origin is uncertain, but was probably Asia Minor, where it has a long history of cultivation and is thus widely dispersed, and ultimately to China and Japan.
     


    The saffron was probably known to the ancient Middle Eastern civilizations of Babylon and Assyria, as the name krokos predates Greek. Saffron was originally made from the dried stigmas of wild plants known as Crocus cartwrightianus and traded by the Phoenicians, and valued by the Persians, Greeks and Romans, and used for colour and spice foods, saffron water to perfume their baths, houses and temples, and an extract of saffron as a medicinal narcotic.
     

    Saffron was named in early Hebrew as carcom, in the Sanskrit medical glossary Bhavaprakasa as kunkuma, and mentioned many times in the Ain-i-Akbari of AD 1590 compiled by Abdul Fazi. Iran has been a major producer since the early Persian empires, and exported saffron to China’s Yuen dynasty (AD 1280-1368), where it was known as sa-fa-lang.

    Expansion of the Arabs along the Mahgreb in the 9th and 10th centuries, and on into the Iberian Peninsula, carried the plant and later its cultivation into Spain and Portugal, which became the major European producers, and saffron was known as the Alicante or Valencia crocus. Saffron was widely known in Europe but the plant is frost-sensitive and this limited its range. Records shows that saffron was cultivated on a commercial scale in Spain in the 9th century AD, in France and Germany in the 12th, and so severe were the penalties for adulteration that in Nurnberg in the mid 15th century, persons convicted of adulterating saffron were either burned or buried alive!


     


    Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta

    Senior Research Fellow
    Plant Quarantine Division
    National Bearue of Plant Genetic Resources
    Pusa Campus, New Delhi

  • عطر با رایحه شیرین بیان Licorice

    شیرین بیان (Licorice)

    شیرین بیان Licoriceشیرین بیان Licoriceشیرین بیان Licorice
    Licorice
    lat. Glycyrrhiza glabra
    Group: Spices
    Licorice Glycyrrhiza glabra
    Licorice Glycyrrhiza glabra
    Licorice Glycyrrhiza glabra
    Odor profile: A very popular note built on the Glycirrhiza glabra plant which has a bittersweet odor profile reminiscent of aniseed, with which it shares many facets. Very recognizable in Lolita Lempicka Eau de Parfum and Lolita au Masculin.

    Licorice is the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra and it is commonly used as a medicine and for food production. Licorice is also known as "sweet root" because it contains a chemical compounds named anethole and glycyrrhizin, which is about 50 times sweeter than sugar. The aroma of licorice is similar to those of anise, star anise, tarragon, sassafras, and fennel. The plant is native to Europe and Asia and used all over the world to treat various illnesses including hepatitis, tuberculosis, endocrine dysfunctions, for healing stomach, etc. The root is harvested in autumn, two to three years after planting. The extract is produced by boiling the root and evaporating the water and it is available as a syrup as well as in a solid form.

  • عطر با رایحه فلفل سیاه Pepper

    فلفل سیاه (Pepper)

    فلفل سیاه Pepperفلفل سیاه Pepperفلفل سیاه Pepper
    Pepper
    lat. Piper nigrum (Piperaceae)
    Group: Spices
    Pepper Piper nigrum (Piperaceae)
    Pepper Piper nigrum (Piperaceae)
    Pepper Piper nigrum (Piperaceae)
    Odor profile: hot and bracing note, short-lived and earthy spice, rendered through steam distillation of the berries of the piper negrum bush, which is very popular as a bright accent top note in fragrances. Featured prominently in Piper Negrum by L.Villoresi.

    A depiction of Calicut, published in 1572 during Portugal's control of the pepper trade


    Black Pepper, christened as “King of Spices” and “Black gold” is the most important and the most widely used spice in the world, occupying a position that is supreme and unique. Black pepper essential oil is stimulating, warming, comforting and cheerful. The quality of pepper is contributed to by two components. Piperine that contributes the pungency and volatile oil that is responsible for the aroma and flavor.
     


    Botanical name: Piper nigrum

    Family: Piperaceae
     



    COMMON NAMES

    Ayurvedic–Maricha (Charaka, Sushruta), Vellaja, Uushana, Suvrrita, Krishna

    Unani–Filfil siyaah, Filfil safed

    Siddha–Milagu

    English–Black Pepper

    Parts Used-Fruit

    Common method of extraction-Steam distillation of the dried, unripe fruit

    Aroma-Pleasant, fresh, spicy and peppery, warm, woody

    Note-Middle

    Blends well with-Sandalwood, rosemary, citrus, lavender, ginger, clove, lemon, coriander, geranium

    HABITAT

    Black pepper is a native plant of the Malabar, a region on the Western Coast of South India and originated in the tropical evergreen forests of the Western Ghats of India. The Malabar Coast of India was the center of the pepper trade from time immemorial. The plant is cultivated in the hot and moist parts of India, Sri Lanka and other tropical countries like Malaysia, China and Madagascar. However, Vietnam is the world’s largest producer and exporter of pepper.

    HISTORY

    Pepper has been highly esteemed in India since time immemorial and was one of the first of the oriental spices to be introduced into Europe, being well known to the ancient Greeks and Romans. From the Malabar Coast of India, pepper was carried by overland routes, as well as by sea. Initially black pepper was taken from the Malabar Coast to the Indonesian islands, and then it spread to various Pacific islands, South East Asian countries and later to tropical Africa and America.

    BOTANY

    Pepper belongs to family Piperaceae and genus Piper. Apart from black pepper (P. nigrum), the genus also includes economically important species like
    P. longum–long pepper
    P. betle–betel leaf     P. chaba–Java long pepper
    P. cubeba–Cubeb, Tailed pepper

    Piper nigrum is a perennial climber, climbing by means of roots which adhere to the support tree. The old stem becomes thick and produces numerous lateral branches. Runner shoots arise from the base of the vine. Leaves are thick, coriaceous, glabrous shape but much variable—commonly ovate, elliptic or elliptic lanceolate.  The size varies from small to large. The base is round, acute or cordate, the tip acuminate, and tge upper surface is dark green to light green, with lower surface being dull green. The pendent spikes form inflorescence and are borne opposite the leaves on the plagiotropic branches. They are 13-15 cm long, bearing 50-150 minute flowers borne in the axils of ovate fleshy bracts. The flowers may be unisexual, with monoecious or dioecious forms, or may be hermaphrodite.
     

    ESSENTIAL OIL

    Most of the pepper oil in commerce is produced in Western Europe and North America from imported black pepper. The most important types of pepper for processing into essential oil are the Indonesian (Lampong) and Indian (Malabar). The pepper is crushed to a coarse powder and on steam distillation in which ammonia is evolved (in common with, for example, ginger, pimento and cubebs) it yields a colorless to a pale green essential oil with a mild, non-pungent flavor. Pepper oil is used in perfumery and flavorings. Black pepper oil is obtained upon steam distillation of the spice as an almost water-white or pale greenish-grey, mobile liquid, which becomes viscous on aging.

    CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS

    Fruits yielded piperine, piperetine and piperidine, amides-peperyline, piperoleins A and B and N-iso-butyl-cicosa-trans-2-trans-4-dienamide. The major constituent piperine (2-5%) showed CNS-depressant, antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and hepato-protective properties.

    USES

    • Dried seeds are used in prescriptions, for cough, rhinitis, consumption, anemia, fainting.

    • Black pepper oil is used as blended massage oil, or diluted in a bath to assist with circulation, bruises, rheumatoid arthritis and muscular aches and pains.

    • Black pepper is also used as a constituent in a blended cream which is commonly used to provide relief in muscular pain.

    • In the winters, black pepper essential oil becomes a great substitute used as warmth-generating aromatherapy constituents.

    • Black pepper essential oil is used as an aromatherapy massage oil, to increase the blood circulation.

    • The essential oil can make a room feel warmer and cozier when used in an aromatherapy diffuser.


     

     


    Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta (cshekhar)
    Fragrantica Writer

  • عطر با رایحه فلفل شیرین Pimento

    فلفل شیرین (Pimento)

    فلفل شیرین Pimentoفلفل شیرین Pimentoفلفل شیرین Pimento
    Pimento
    lat. Capsicum
    Other names: pimiento, cherry pepper
    Group: Spices
    Pimento Capsicum
    Pimento Capsicum
    Pimento Capsicum
    Odor profile: Hot, shocking fantasy note that recalls the capsicum pepper, used as an accent top note in fragrances in the oriental and woody families.

  • عطر با رایحه فلفل صورتی Pink Pepper

    فلفل صورتی (Pink Pepper)

    فلفل صورتی Pink Pepperفلفل صورتی Pink Pepperفلفل صورتی Pink Pepper
    Pink Pepper
    lat. Schinus molle (Anacardiaceae)
    Other names: pink peppercorn, baies roses, poivre rosé, faux poivre
    Group: Spices
    Pink Pepper Schinus molle (Anacardiaceae)
    Pink Pepper Schinus molle (Anacardiaceae)
    Pink Pepper Schinus molle (Anacardiaceae)
    Odor profile: Although technically a pepper berry, it doesn't smell spicy, but rosy. A very popular modern accent piece in fragrances that provides a contemporary rosy note without veering into powdery or retro. Mollifies woodies and synthetic ambers and is featured often in fruity florals.

    Peruse a fragrance notes list lately, in both mainstream department store brands and niche perfume lines, and you find pink pepper almost at every pace. Suddenly pink pepper is as ubiquitous as musk or rose. It's everywhere!, people complain with the distaste of "familiarity breeds contempt" adage. After seeing it in the less heavyweight Chanels (such as Chance flankers or Bleu), Elle by YSL, Tresor Midnight Rose and the like, is the snobbish consumer tired of pink pepper? But the mysteries of this material run deeper than its cutesy name, while the brightly colored evocation -so literal in the real reddish pink berries we buy at the spice specialist for use in cooking- is a welcome diversion, a small gift of perfume daydreaming. Call me superficial, but my heart gives a small leap when I hear about vividly colored stuff; doesn't yours too?

    BOTANY & ETYMOLOGY


    Pink pepper, also called "pink peppercorns" (baies roses in French), is a kind of pepper obtained from the berries of the species Schinus molle and of the related Schinus terebinthifolius, originally a South American tree (Brazil, Peru...) with a look close to Babylon Willow (saule pleurer or Salix Babylonia). Formally known as Baie rose de Bourbon or Poivre de Bourbon, pink pepper is also referenced as "poivre rosé" (literally "pink pepper" thanks to its color), faux poivre (fake pepper, because it's not hot) and with various geographical appellations (Poivre brésilien, Poivre d'Amérique, Poivre de la Réunion), though it's also produced in other places as well (Madagascar, close to Reunion actually, and New Caledonia, most notably). It's known ever since the 5th century, according to historical data, but never as popular as it is now.
     

    The name schinus derives from the Greek: σχίνος is the common name for lentisque trees, the plants that produce mastic, a clear gum which is used for chewing and a pleiad of purposes (from aromatic to cosmetic and hygienic), and pink pepper trees produce a secretion that is indeed similar to mastic (also schinus « molle » -pronounced « moyé »- i.e. soft, which refers to the Peruvian variety, while terebinthifolius refers to the Brazilian variant). "Terebinthifolius" means "with leaves similar to the pistachio, hence terebinth [τερέβινθος in Greek] comes from". Pink pepper however comes from the dried small reddish berries of the tree rather than the secretion of the bark or any of the leaves.

    Despite the name predisposing for an exotic and intense experience the constituent which makes pink pepper a...pepper is carene, an only lightly hot terpene (terpenes give a pine-like, turpentine-like "freshness" to smelly things). Crush a pink peppercorn between your teeth and you will see how your tongue won't catch fire like it would with a whole black pepper one. Pink peppercorns are not exactly as hot as regular black pepper buds or even a green or white one; those rely on the constituent piperene for their hotness and produce a much more intense tugging at our trigeminal nerve, the one which regulates intense olfactory sensation (interpreting it as a sort of "pain", like when smelling ammonia).

    ORIGINS OF A TREND WHICH CONTINUES UNABASHED


    The popularity of pink pepper as a fragrance note derives itself from the increasing utilization of it as a culinary spice in recent years. According to Fauchon, "Baie de rose is flavoursome, mildly sweet, and perfect for sprinkling on mixed salads, meats and exotic fruits, among others dishes." Indeed the bouquet of pink pepper is a sweetish, lightly rosy spice that doesn't burn on the tongue like black pepper does, which adds a welcome piquancy to various dishes; as pliable as parsley, as delicate as orange flower water, it adds that extra something. Plus the fumes off a white meat casserole with pink pepper scent the kitchen so deliciously! (Infuse them in some butter and spread your oxtail before cooking, put some in a vinaigrette and let it sit and then poach some sweet fruit in it and you can thank me later, or better yet if you're ever in Osaka, grab one of those red peppercorn decorated black chocolates on display).
     

    It's a pity that the average American can't fully profit from this France-imported (but Madagascar produced! don't ask...) spice; the "macaroni & cheese" out-of-a-box culture has deterred them for so long, but the perfume loving person regardless of the pervading fast-food culture around or the soil they're based on (this side of the Atlantic or that one), is vastly most sophisticated than taken credit for, almost instinctively knowing there is a world beyond, a world they are eager and willing to explore. However the consientious shopper should discard those colorful "mills" with green, white and pink peppercorns sold at groceries; the flavor is weak and the scent almost absent, the whole thing is mostly ornamental rather than any use in the kitchen cupboard and the smell library. But we digress.

    First there were "baies" and "roses" and no English equivalent that could make justice, rendering the waters a bit muddy. How should one search in the US market for something which they don't know how to say in English?

    Diptyque was famous for their Baies candle (and room spray) which however smells of roses and blackcurrant leaves: in a way this combination is echoed in their delicate, Ophelia-evoking L'Ombre Dans L'Eau fragrance, but it was the celebrity following of the candle (also featured in Sex & the City in Carrie's apartment) which made it ultra-recognizable. It was enough to render a familiarity to the niche consumer: baies, berries, and the leap to pink berries wasn't far behind!

    But the first fragrance to make use of pink pepper as a distinct fragrance note is none other than the best-selling (and largely trend-setting) Pleasures by E.Lauder, coming out in 1995. Herein lies the interesting part: perfumers don't crush the berries in a mortar and pestle and extract any liquid or oil. No. Pink pepper is a carefully constructed note, which explains all of its current popularity; technology is advancing the craft most rapidly. Of course the innovation was tricky to get right. Lauder had the International Flavors & Fragrances golden standard used, the "soft extraction" technique by which carbon dioxide at a supercritical state (i.e. between liquid and gas) is passed through the dried berries and "softly" extracts the essence molecules, with no imprint on the smell. This produces a "purer" aroma, with sparkling top notes, rather than the bottom-heavy essences derived from traditional extraction techniques.

    Perfumers Geza Schoen and Jean Claude Ellena had a field day after this. Schoen has used pink pepper in almost the entire Ormonde Jayne line, a carefully art-directed collection by Linda Pilington which makes use of the trendiest molecules in a way that renders artistically honest perfumes which appeal even to traditionalists. Isfarkand, Ormonde Man, Zizan and Orris Noir are but the start... Escentric 01 by Escentric Molecules (Schoen's own line) is further adventurous land for the willing.

    Jean Claude Ellena has highlighted pink pepper in many of his offerings, starting with the infamous Rose Poivree (for his own The Different Company) and nicely expanding into Angeliques sous la pluie for the Frederic Malle collection where the juniper-like facets of the pink pepper (instead of the sweetly rosy, as is the practice with most mainstream perfumes using the note) pair with the angelica and give a gin & tonic evocation that is almost good enough to drink!

    In a trend report for 2012 by Scentsy.com, pink pepper was declared "note of the future". By now, you know it's true. There are marketing reasons for it of course. "Pink Pepper fits the mood of our time," explains Heidi Thompson, President of Scentsy, Inc. in a press release. "It's a spirited fragrance note that offers inspiration to find adventure, be romantic or simply add a touch of excitement to any aspect of life." Tom Pastre, President of Creatique, a fragrance industry consulting firm located in Cresskill, New Jersey, says, "Pink Pepper is appropriate for these challenging times because it's uplifting and has a certain optimism to it. It's bold and zesty, but has a warmth that's comforting. It's the contrasts that make it exciting: feminine and floral, yet sexy and exotic."

    Well, no more than other fragrance notes, but you know how trends work. They are drilled onto you.

    OTHER NOTABLE FRAGRANCES WITH PINK PEPPER NOTES

    It would be futile, nigh impossible, to track every single fragrance with pink pepper notes. Like I said, it's everywhere lately. Therefore the following mentions are but an inspiration to go smell and find your own special fragrance which expresses this "note" for you best.

    Le Labo plays on an interesting precipice with their Baie Rose 26, so beware oh shopper of intrigued interest: baies roses means pink peppercorns, baie rose indicates a red berry (regardless of peppery warmth or not) and the fragrance itself, composed by perfumer Frank Voekl, is intensely redolent of spicy, clove-y and pimento accented roses instead. The evocation is more literally one facet of the pink pepper essence (the sweet rosiness) than the sum of its parts. You might keep that at the back of your mind.

    L'Artisan Parfumeur's Poivre Piquant is an underrated spicy fragrance which uses the pink pepper note in an interesting way. Bertrand Duchaufour uses pink pepper in Aedes de Venustas eponymous fragrance by L'Artisan Parfumeur as well as in his Al Oudh and incense-y Timbuktu for the same company.

    Rose Poivree from the Different Company (and composed by Jean Claude Ellena) of course made ample use of pink pepper in a way that highlighted its more human-like qualities, paired with naughty, intimate notes, as is the favored game of the revered perfumer. Even the master of orientalia, surely more intent on denser spices and more honeyed and thick notes than this, Serge Lutens, chooses pink pepper as the top note for Santal Blanc; the freshness and rosiness is a nice counterpoint to the austerity of the wood pencil shavings of the cedar.

    Eau de Merveilles has a pink pepper note too, drowned perhaps in all the saline salty skin and orangeade splashed on, but there if you care to discover it. A similar case for the "skin scent" Archives 69 by Etat Libre d'Orange where the muskiness is allied to the rosiness of the spice. Mauer & Wirtz have used pink peppercorns with citrus essences instead to reinforce that freshness aspect of the berry in their renewed and repackaged 4711 line; a small steal too, at those prices and a nicely retro packaging to boot.

    While Bang by Marc Jacobs has a nice masculine "spicy freshness" about it; the peppery side of pink pepper alongside iso-e super recall the work of perfumers Schoen and Ellena most faithfully. The fragrance is rather bold, distinctive and yet very wearable as wearable (as is the whole Jacobs line, but probably the best one out of the lot).

    Like with other notes in perfumes, pink pepper is not the be all or end all of perfumery. It's however a modern take on a freshly spicy vibe which one should be careful to explore before dismissing; familiarity or ubiquitousness might trap one into losing some good stuff out there!
        
        

    Elena Vosnaki

    Elena Vosnaki is a historian and perfume writer from Greece and a Writer for Fragrantica. She is the founder and editor of Perfume Shrine, one of the most respected independent online publications on perfume containing fragrance reviews, industry interviews, essays on raw materials and perfume history, a winner in Fragrantica Blog Awards and a finalist in numerous blog awards contests.

    Her writing was recognized at the Fifi Awards for Editorial Excellence in 2009 and she contributes to publications around the world.

  • عطر با رایحه کاکائو Cacao

    کاکائو Cacao

    کاکائو Cacaoکاکائو Cacaoکاکائو Cacao
    Cacao Pod
    lat. Theobroma cacao (Sterculiaceae)
    Group: Spices
    Cacao Pod Theobroma cacao (Sterculiaceae)
    Cacao Pod Theobroma cacao (Sterculiaceae)
    Cacao Pod Theobroma cacao (Sterculiaceae)
    Odor profile: the fruit of the cocoa tree (theobroma cacao), full, sensuous, slightly spicy and bitterish with an underlay of fat.

    Before it melts in our mouth and gives us its energy and optimism, chocolate goes a long way from being a green pod growing on a tropical tree.


    The history of cocoa interlaces with the history of the ancient American civilization. In Central America cocoa trees were cultivated by the Mayas and later by the Toltecs and the Aztecs. The word "chocolate" is derived from the word ‘xocolatl’ which originates from the Nahuatl language, an Aztecan dialect, and means 'bitter water''. The word "cocoa" stems from the word "kakaw" which the Maya took on from preceding civilizations. The Europeans did not know cocoa even existed until 1502 - 10 years after Columbus discovered America.
     

    The fruits of the cocoa tree, the cocoa pods, weigh 200 - 800 grams. It takes about 6 months before the fruits can be harvested. While the pods ripen, their color changes from green to yellow and orange. One tree produces about 30 pods with each of them containing about 30 - 40 seeds: The cocoa beans. There are several species of cocoa. Criollo, which accounts for 3% of the world's cocoa produce, is highest quality cocoa and Forastero, which accounts for 85% of the world's cocoa production, is the most common one.

    HARVEST
    The cocoa beans and the white pulp are extracted from the ripe cocoa pod before they are left to ferment while covered with banana leaves. The two-week long fermentation process is of utmost importance as it enhances the flavour and aroma of the cocoa.


    Once fermented the cocoa beans contain approximately 60% moisture which needs to be reduced to 7.5% as high levels of moisture cause mold and would spoil the harvest. Therefore the fermented cocoa beans are sun-dried after the fermentation process. And after that the cocoa beans are ready to be dispatched to the factories where they are processed further.
     
    In the factories the cocoa beans are cleaned and roasted at low temperature. Roasting the beans is what gives them the characteristic taste and smell we all know and love. Once the beans have cooled off they are being refined, i.e. freed of hulls and germs, by machines. The clean cocoa iss then ground to a paste called chocolate liquor which is the main component of chocolate. Cocoa paste consists of cocoa butter (natural cocoa fat) and a dry substance. When the cocoa butter is separated from the paste, the dry substance is further ground into fine cocoa powder.



    Chocolate is made of chocolate liquor. Sugar, cocoa butter, emulsifying agents and vanilla are added to the chocolate liquor. Then the liquid chocolate is refined and tempered for perfect consistency and aroma. The scent of dark chocolate is full, warm and slightly spicy. White chocolate is made of cocoa butter, sugar and milk powder and therefore its aroma is not as intense. It is less spicy, but creamy and soft.

  • عطر با رایحه گشنیز Coriander

    گشنیز (Coriander)

    گشنیز Corianderگشنیز Corianderگشنیز Coriander

    Coriander
    lat. Coriandrum sativum
    Other names: Chinese Parsley
    Group: Spices
    Coriander Coriandrum sativum
    Coriander Coriandrum sativum
    Coriander Coriandrum sativum
    Odor profile: the essence rendered by steam distillation of Coriandrum sativum, also known as cilantro. Has orange facets in top with a spicy, woody-resinous, clay-like background note.




    The art of producing perfumes is an ancient art which is said to have begun in Mesopotamia and Egypt, sometime during the second millennium BC. Back in that time, notes used in making perfumes were spices and various kinds of herbs but surprisingly, no use of flowers was made then. I wonder how perfumes smelled in those days. And the possible answer comes to my mind, “It would be something like aromatic, spicy, earthy, and woody and green." But with time, experiments were done with more substances and perfumery was just no more a matter of a use of herbs and spices but it had a wide range of substances to work with.
     
     

    In this article of raw materials, we will learn about Coriander and its uses and so much more. Cilantro is the Spanish word for coriander leaves, it is also sometimes called Chinese or Mexican parsley. Technically, coriander refers to the entire plant. It is a member of the carrot family.

           Here's a snappy look at Coriander:

    Class: Magnolioseda
    Order: Apiales Ginsing / Carrot
    Family: Apiaceae of Umbelliferae
    Genus and specie: Coriandrum Sativum
    Other names: Cilantro and Chinese parsley
    Species: Sativum Sativum
    Extraction of oil: Steam distillation
    Appearance: Viscous transparent liquid
    Colour: Yellow
    Application: In perfumery, medicine, cosmetics
     

    Coriander is popular as a scented stimulating substance and also an important culinary spice. It has been cultivated in different parts of the world for thousands of years now and is said to be one of the oldest known herbs, it can be traced as far back as 5,000 B.C. Coriander has been in wide use in the Middle East, Asia, and southern Europe, and also its origin can be traced back to ancient Egypt. The Romans took coriander with them to Britain. The British then introduced it to North America in 1670, where it took hold especially in Mexico and Latin America.
     
     

    Coriander is an annual herb with feathery leaves with pale pink and white umbrella type flowers. The seeds happen to be small and spherical with one end being slightly pointed and the colour is brown when the seeds are dried. The name cilantro refers to the leaves which are used as herb, whereas the seed or fruit is referred to as coriander and both possess different flavours and aroma from one another. The aroma of its seed is usually described as pleasant, warm, nutty and spicy with an undertone similar to orange peel. However, there are some mixed opinions about its leaves. Some find the leaves smell unpleasant, soapy and like burnt rubber, while many people describe it as fresh, green and even citrusy. A question often arises about coriander is that, what is coriander? Is it an herb or spice? Coriander can refer to both an herb and a spice.
     

    The earliest Hebrews equated coriander as manna, which God granted to the ‘Children of Israel’ and was one of the bitter herbs which were drunk during Passover. Primeval Egyptians and Greeks believed coriander had aphrodisiac properties. Interestingly, ancient Egyptians considered coriander to be the ‘secret of happiness’ and mixed it in wines to drink as love potion. It is also said that coriander seeds were discovered in the tomb of Tutankhamun.

    In present day, coriander is also used to flavour liqueurs and this practice is said to have been started first by the Greeks and Romans, who flavoured their wines with it. In Belgium, it is one of the ingredients of the herb mixture, which traditionally includes coriander and orange peel, to flavour Wheat beer.

    As of its culinary uses, chopped fresh leaves are widely used in Mexican and Tex-Mex cooking, where they are combined with chillies and added to salsas, guacamoles, and seasoned rice dishes. The seeds are used whole or ground as a flavouring for food and as seasoning. They are also used in curries, curry powder, pickles, sausages, soups, stews, and ratatouille. In Thailand the root of the coriander plant is used to flavour meats and curries. It is also an ingredient of garam masala, pickling spices and pudding spices and is used in cakes, breads and other baked foods.

    The essential oil from this ancient herb has a place in aromatherapy. It helps to ease the mind and fight fatigue. It warms and calms the digestive system, relieves rheumatism and arthritic pain, muscular spasms and detoxifies the body. The essential oil is obtained from the seeds through steam distillation. It is also said to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-spasmodic properties, and hence, it is extensively used as effective massage oil to facilitate blood circulation as well as to relieve stiffness of the joints. Coriander is also used to flavour gin, vermouth, liqueurs and tobacco.
     
     

    In perfumes, coriander is used to enrich the top and middle notes with its herbaceous, woody and spicy aura. Coriander oil combines nicely with bergamot, black pepper, cinnamon, clary sage, fennel, frankincense, ginger, grapefruit, juniper berry, lemon, neroli, nutmeg, orange, petitgrain, vetiver, and ylang-ylang.

      Some perfume recommendations, as well as I also welcome you all to share yours:


    Coriander D.S. & Durga

    Coriandre Jean Couturier

    Fifi Chachnil Fifi Chachnil

    Fracas Robert Piguet

    Armani Prive Vetiver Babylone

    Caravelle Epicee Frapin

    Drakkar Noir Guy Laroche

    Live Jazz Yves Saint Laurent

     

    Images: flower of coriander by wikipedia, coriander with a bee by rejohnson71


    Author: Naheed Shoukat Ali  (naheed)
    Fragrantica Writer

  • عطر با رایحه گل ختمی Star Anise

    گل ختمی (Star Anise)

    گل ختمی Star Aniseگل ختمی Star Aniseگل ختمی Star Anise
    Star Anise
    lat. Illicium verum (Illiciaceae)
    Group: Spices
    Star Anise Illicium verum (Illiciaceae)
    Star Anise Illicium verum (Illiciaceae)
    Star Anise Illicium verum (Illiciaceae)
    Odor profile: The steam distilled essence of Illicium verum, a star-shaped spice that is common in Asia. It resembles anise but is in fact more pungent with a

    harsher and more bitter profile. It's rich in anethol, putting it in the same category as licorice, fennel, and tarragon.


    BOTANY & ODOUR CHARACTERISTICS


    Botanical Name: Illicium verum
    Plant Family: Illiciaceae
    Country of Origin: China
    Plant Part: Seeds
    Growth Method: Cultivated

    Extraction Method: Steam Distillation
    Colour: Clear to Pale Yellow
    Consistency: Thin
    Strength of Aroma: Strong and liquorice-like, more pungent and stronger
    than anise

     

    Family Illiciaceae includes flowering plants that have evergreen trees and shrubs with simple leaves and small, bisexual flowers composed of numerous petals.

    The number of stamens and carpels are few to many, with each carpel containing single seed; floral features are generally highly variable. Extant species have

    aromatic oils cells. The leaves bear essential oils and the fruits produce 2.5 – 5% of essential oil. The genus Illucium comprises 40 species of mainly trees and

    shrubs, originating from eastern North America to Southeast Asia. The most important one is verum, star anise.
     

    Our topic of discussion will be Star Anise from the specie Illicium verum, also known as Chinese Star Anise, as this is the most widely used and edible species.

    But you will also learn a little about the other specie grown in Japan whose tree is similar to Chinese Star Anise, so read through…


    Chinese Star Anise is a small, evergreen tree that is indigenous to China and Vietnam, today grown almost exclusively in southern China, Indo-China, and

    Japan. The name illicere derives from Latin, meaning to attract, for its temping perfume, and verum means true or genuine. The plant has large, dark green

    leaves and small, attractive, solitary flowers. The flowers are followed by distinctive star-shaped woody fruits that are made up of eight separate carpels. Each

    carpel forms a small capsule with a single, shiny light brown seed housed inside. The fruits are harvested just before ripening, and then sun dried.
     

    Chinese Star Anise has been used as a spice and medicine for over 3000 years. It was believed in Europe to originate from Philippines, as in 1578 the navigator

    Thomas Cavendish brought the fruits first to Europe from Philippines, unaware that they actually originated from southern China.


    STAR ANIS IN DIFFERENT LANGUAGES
    Anise Stars, Badain, Badiana, Chinese anise

    French: anis de la Chine, anise étoilé, badiane
    German: Sternanis
    Italian: anice stellato
    Spanish: anis estrllado, badian
    Chinese: ba chio, ba (ht) g (h) ok, bart gok, pa-chiao, pak kok, peh kah
    Indonesian: bunga lawang
    Malay: bunga lawang
    Russian: Бадьян
    Srpski: Zvezdasti Anis
    Hrvatski: Zvjezdasti Anis

     

    The major products from star anise are the seeds (fruit), which are the spice. They are used as flavouring in a wide range of food and drinks including, chewing

    gum, baked goods, gelatine, meat and meat products, liqueurs and brandies. They are also a constituent of Chinese five spices, and in India and Pakistan, it is a

    major constituent of garam masala and also one of the ingredients in a dish called ‘Biryani’. If you are in Vietnam and digging in Vietnamese noodles, Pho, you

    can easily tell from the taste that it has been flavoured with star anise and true is that it is used as a major ingredient in Pho. The dried ripe fruit is also found in

    pot-pourris.
     



    Talking of its medicinal uses, Star Anise has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for over thousand years for its stimulating effect on the digestive system

    such as stomach discomfort, indigestion and bloating, as well as for respiratory ailments including bronchitis and unproductive coughs. Star Anise is also useful

    in dyspepsia, flatulence, spasmodic, dysentery, asthma, hemiplegia, facial paralysis and halitosis.
    ESSENTIAL OIL

    Star Anise oil is obtained from steam distillation from fresh and partly dried fruits and it is present in the fruit wall, not in the seed. The oil is a clear, colourless

    to pale yellow liquid, with aromatic, sweet and pleasant fragrance that is similar to that of Anise, but less subtle and slightly bitterer.

    The oil enhances relaxation, sleep patterns and emotional balance. It helps reduce tiredness or weariness resulting from physical or mental activity. It blends

    well with bay, cardamom, caraway, coriander, cedarwood, dill, sweet fennel, lavender, mandarin, neroli, orange, petitgrain, rosewood.

    NOTE: There are two kinds of star anise, two similar trees, Japanese Star Anise (Illicium anisatum) and Chinese Star Anise (Illicium verum). Only Japanese

    star anise is not edible because it is highly toxic, instead, it has been burned as incense in Japan. Its fruit is smaller and with weaker odour which is said to be

    more similar to cardamom than to anise. If you have been admitted to hospital with neurogical symptoms after having star anise tea, you probably have had

    Japanese star anise tea.





    Image of live plant from wikipedia


    Author: Naheed Shoukat Ali  (naheed)
    Fragrantica Writer

  • عطر با رایحه گل زنجبیل Ginger flower

    گل زنجبیل (Ginger flower)

    گل زنجبیل Ginger flowerگل زنجبیل Ginger flowerگل زنجبیل Ginger flower
    Ginger
    lat. Zingiber officinale
    Group: Spices
    Ginger Zingiber officinale
    Ginger Zingiber officinale
    Ginger Zingiber officinale
    Odor profile: A very common note in fragrance, most often in the context of a "gingerbread accord" (first recognizably used in Bois des Iles by Chanel and

    famously in Tea for Two by L'Artisan Parfumeur and Brit Red). It's spicy, sharp, bracing yet light, and pairs well with citrus notes, vanilla and woods.


    Along with cardamom and turmeric, ginger is a tropical plant from the Ginger family (Zingiberaceae). The plant came from South-Eastern Asia, China and

    Western India. People fell in love with ginger hundreds of years ago and now it is cultivated in Africa, South America, Malaysia and Caribbean countries, Nepal,

    Japan, etc.
     


    There are over 1000 species of the ginger family. The whole plant has a fragrance, but mostly the roots (actually rhizomes ) are used. There are so many uses of

    ginger root: esthetics, perfumery, medicinal, culinary. Ginger flowers are big red or pink bud clusters, commonly used in the floral and landscape design

    industry for their bright colours, strong stems and long-lasting flowers.
       Flower of ginger

    In culinary, it has been used in beer and in the liqueur industry.  You bake with ginger, make soups and teas... This is my recent recipe for miso soup with

    ginger. I've tried it a few times already and this is my best soup so far: put mushrooms, tofu, bok choi, bean sprouts, soy paste, carrots and potatoes in water.

    When you feel it's cooked,  add ground ginger and toasted seaweeds. Just don't overdose! Tastes amazing!
     

    Also, I am using ginger tea to help with spring body cleansing. This is the recipe: fresh mint leaves, a couple cardamoms, a little bit of lemon grass and cut

    ginger. Sip for about 10 minutes and enjoy!!! In Western cuisine, ginger is traditionally used mainly in sweet foods such as ginger ale, gingerbread, ginger

    snaps, ginger biscuits...


    The gingerbread that is so popular in Europe actually biscuits with spices. The history of gingerbread baking comes from 9th century when instead of spices

    people added honey, nuts and raisins, herbs, berries and roots. Then eastern exotic spices were discovered gingerbread transformed its taste. Black pepper,

    ginger, clove, anise, mint, nutmeg, lemon, vanilla changed gingerbread forever.

    Even though it's called GINGERbread ginger is not a main ingredient. Doesn't matter! This sweet treat is one of our favorites! Soft, spicy and delicious it's a

    good addition to morning tea or Moroccan coffee as well as evening glass of milk.

    India, Pakistan, Nepal and Bangladesh use fresh ginger as one of the main spices for cooking. Fresh, as well as dried, ginger is used to spice tea and coffee,

    especially in winter. Ginger powder and chopped or ground roots are also used in many food preparations; ginger is also consumed in candied and pickled form.



    In Burma, ginger is widely used in cooking and as a main ingredient in traditional medicines. It is also consumed as a salad dish, which consists of shredded

    ginger preserved in oil, and a variety of nuts and seeds. In Indonesia, a beverage is made from ginger and palm sugar. In Malaysia, Philippines and China,

    ginger is used in many kinds of dishes, especially in soups and teas. In Vietnam, the fresh leaves, finely chopped, can also be added as a top garnish and spice to

    add a much subtler flavour of ginger than the chopped root.


    In Japan, ginger is pickled or turned into a candy. In the traditional Korean kimchi, ginger is finely minced and added to the ingredients of the spicy paste just

    before the fermenting process. In the Caribbean, ginger is a popular spice for cooking, and making drinks. Jamaicans make ginger tea from fresh ginger, as

    well as the famous regional specialty Jamaican ginger cake and ginger beer. Tea brewed from ginger is a common folk remedy for colds. Ginger ale and ginger

    beer are also drunk as stomach-settlers in countries where the beverages are made. Ginger water was also used to avoid heat cramps in the United States.

    Ginger is a very strong antiseptic and antibacterial and is widely used in many countries to prevent, heal colds and just to support the immune system.

    Fresh, dried and powdered ginger root has been used for thousands of years to alleviate nausea and improve circulation. What about its perfume

    characteristics? The aroma is very bright, tart, fresh, warm, exotic, tonic, a little bit bitter... The main active ingredients of ginger oil are: curcumene, alpha-

    zingiberene, citral, geraniol. This tropical exotic fragrance would go together with jasmine, neroli, lavender, mint, rose, bergamot, basil, patchouli, juniper,

    lemongrass.
     

     


    Author: Olga Ikebanova
    Biologist, aromatherapist, photographer, floral designer and passionate believer in the Power of Nature.
     

  • عطر با رایح نت های تند Spicy Notes

    نت های تند (Spicy Notes)

    نت های تند Spicy Notesنت های تند Spicy Notesنت های تند Spicy Notes
    Spicy Notes
    Group: Spices
    Spicy Notes
    Spicy Notes
    Spicy Notes
    Odor profile: Fragrances belonging in the Oriental family of scents often comprise spicy notes that come from exotic parts of the world, usually the Middle and

    Far East: cinnamon, clove, vanilla, pepper, mace, nutmeg etc. The classification of "spicy oriental" is an oriental accented by these notes.

  • عطر با رایحه نوعی برگ گیاه برگ بو Bay...

    نوعی برگ گیاه (برگ بو) (Bay Leaf)

    برگ گیاه برگ بو Bay Leafبرگ گیاه برگ بو Bay Leafبرگ گیاه برگ بو Bay Leaf
    Bay Leaf
    lat. Laurus nobilis
    Group: Spices
    Bay Leaf Laurus nobilis
    Bay Leaf Laurus nobilis
    Bay Leaf Laurus nobilis
    Odor profile: the leaves of the laurel bush, a herbal scent with a spicy overlay, familiar from the kitchen. Famously used in Bay Rhum cologne and as an accent

    in many masculine fragrances and in certain feminines (usually chypres).

    Bay leaves are the aromatic leaves of the bay laurel, an aromatic evergreen shrub native to the Mediterranean. Fresh leaves have minimal flavor, but whole

    dried leaves are commonly used in soups, sauces and stews in Italian, North American and Asian dishes. The dried leaves impart a mild herbaceous taste to a

    dish but they must be removed prior to serving, as they retain sharp edges that can damage the digestive tract. Bay leaves are also valued for their use as a

    natural insect repellent in kitchens and pantries.

  • عطر با رایحه هل Cardamom

    هل (Cardamom)

    هل Cardamomهل Cardamomهل Cardamom
    Cardamom
    lat. Elletaria Cardamomum
    Other names: cardamon, green cardamom, true cardamom
    Group: Spices
    Cardamom Elletaria Cardamomum
    Cardamom Elletaria Cardamomum
    Cardamom Elletaria Cardamomum
    Odor profile: the steam distilled essence from the fruit of the green cardamom, intensely sweet resinous-aromatic and slightly spicy, often used to aromatize

    coffee in the Middle East. notably featured in Cartier's Declaration.



    Category: Spice
    Family: Zingiberaceae
    Names: Cardamom, true cardamom, green cardamom (English)
    Desccription: Camphorated, aromatic, resinous
    Extraction method: steam distillation
     

    Cardamom is one of the world’s very ancient spices and also the third most expensive one next to saffron and vanilla. It is native to the East originating in the

    forests of the Western Ghats in southern India, where it grows wild. Today it also grows in Sri Lanka, Guatemala, Indo China, Tanzania, El Salvador, Vietnam,

    Laos and Cambodia.

    Cardamom was well known in ancient times and the Egyptians used it in perfumes and incense and chewed it to whiten their teeth, while the Romans used it for

    their stomachs when they over-indulged. Vikings came upon cardamom about one thousand years ago, in Constantinople, and introduced it into Scandinavia,

    where it remains popular to this day.

    There are two main types of cardamom, mentioned below, however there are in fact four related species distributed from Africa to Australia. Small green

    cardamom (Eletteria cardamomum) & Large red/black cardamom (Amomum subulatum or Amomum tsao-ko)
    The most common type is green cardamom, it is a native of south-eastern Asia from India south to Sri Lanka and east to Malaysia and western Indonesia, where

    it grows in tropical rainforests. Black cardamom is distributed mainly in Asia and Australia with Amomum subulatum (also known as Nepal cardamom) bearing

    smaller pods that are primarily used in the cuisines of India whilst Amomum tsao-ko has larger pods that are most notably used in the cuisine of the Sichuan

    province of China. Both plants are from Zingiberaceae family.
     

    Cardamom has a strong, unique taste, with an intensely aromatic, resinous fragrance. From my description, green cardamom is minty and aromatic and I simply

    love chewing it and it’s something natural and safe that kills mouth odours of some strong foods like garlic and onions. While black cardamom is smoky and

    earthy in flavour and due to having strong taste andaroma, one can’t chew it. Cardamom is best stored in pod form because once the seeds are exposed or

    ground they quickly lose their flavour.

    In the 11th century in India cardamom was included in the list of ingredients for panchasugandha-thambula or 'five-fragrance betel chew' in the Manasollasa or

    Book of Splendour. It was also included in recipes from the court of the Sultan of Mandu dating from about 1500. These recipes include sherbets and rice

    dishes flavoured with cardamom. True cardamom, also known as green cardamom, became an article of trade with South Asia in the last thousand years when

    Arab traders brought it into widespread use. Exports from the Malabar Coast, close to where cardamoms grew wild, were described by the Portuguese

    traveller Barbosa in 1524. By the time of Garcia da Orta in 1563 the international trade in cardamoms was well developed. In the 19th century British colonies

    established cardamom as a secondary crop in coffee plantations in other parts of India.
     

    Green cardamom is one of the most expensive spices by weight, and little is needed to add the flavor. In the Middle East, green cardamom powder is used as a

    spice for sweet dishes as well as traditional flavouring in coffee and tea. In Nordic countries, such as in the Finnish sweet bread pulla or in the Scandinavian

    bread Julekake. In South Asia, green cardamom is often used in traditional Indian sweets and in Masala chai (spiced tea). And from my own experience, a cuppa

    spiced with cardamom adds a bright flavour to your senses when you are tired or feeling blue. Black cardamom is sometimes used in garam masala for curries.

    It is occasionally used as a garnish in basmati rice and other dishes. It is often referred to as fat cardamom due to its size.

    A bite of the cherry from my country Pakistan, we use it in almost all sweet and savoury dishes to flavour. A dessert called ‘kheer’ which is incomplete without

    the flavour of cardamom is a must try. It is a well known and a ubiquitous dessert to both India and Pakistan. Talking of its traditional remedy, it is traditionally

    used to treat skin conditions and aid digestion.

          Cardamom in different languages:

    French: cardamome
    German: Kardamom
    Italian: cardamomo, cardamone
    Spanish: cardamomo
    Burmese: phalazee
    Chinese: ts’ao-k’ou
    Hindi and Urdu: chhoti elachi, illaichi
    Indonesian: kapulaga
    Malay: buah pelaga
    Sinhalese: enasal
    Tamil: elam
    Thai: grawahn, kravan

                       

                        Extraction Method:

    Cardamom essential oil is extracted from Elettaria cardomomum by steam distillation from the seeds of the fruit gathered just before they are ripe. Valerius

    Cordus first distilled the essential oil in 1544 after the Portuguese discovered the East. Cardamom oil is sweet, spicy and almost balsamic in fragrance, is clear

    to pale yellow in color and slightly watery in viscosity.

    After all its history and uses in food and medicine, how can perfumery leave behind? It adds freshness and the colour of brightness in men’s fragrances while in

    women’s fragrances, a little hand will add spice to her elegance.

     


    Author: Naheed Shoukat Ali  (naheed)
    Fragrantica Member

  • عطر با رایحه وانیل Vanilla

    وانیل (Vanilla)

    وانیل Vanillaوانیل Vanillaوانیل Vanilla
    Vanilla
    Group: Spices
    Vanilla
    Vanilla
    Vanilla
    Odor profile: An ever popular fragrance note, known mostly through its synthetic variant vanillin, which is sweet, cozy, comforting, with a pleasing cookie-

    baking feeling to it. Alongside amber, the reference note for the Oriental family of scents (The most famous classic being Shalimar). The real vanilla pod has

    darker facets that recall treacle and booze with off notes. Simple vanillas (Victoria's Secret Love to Dream, Charlie Touch, TBS Vanilla, Coty Vanilla Musk) have

    become increasingly popular with the adolescent market, giving rise to the umbiquity of the gourmand category of scents, while complex, earthier vanillas are

    appearing steadily in the niche sector (Spirituese Double Vanille by Guerlain, Tihota Indult, Montale Vanille Absolue).


    Vanilla, known long ago to Indians of Middle America, came to, together with cocoa and other until then unknown fruits of the New World, win hearts of

    gourmands around the world since the discovery of America. Mayas, and later on Aztecs, called vanilla "tlilxochitl" and used it mainly for their royal chocolate

    drinks. Europeans discovered and came to like vanilla back in 17th century. They used it as a cur for man diseases, and due to its smell and taste, as an additive

    to food and drinks. Vanilla was, for a good reason, considered an powerful aphrodisiac.
     

    Today everyone knows the scent and taste of vanilla, but mainly synthetic, as the real vanilla extract is very expensive and its production hardly profitable for

    producers. The scent of vanilla consists of several components, main of which are vanillin and piperonal (heliotropine).

    Vanilla is a climbing plant, a sort of orchid, the world’s most popular variant of which, Vanilla planifolia, originates from Mexico. There are around hundred of

    variants of this plant, but only two are used in wide commercial production due to its taste and smell: Vanilla planifolia and Vanilla tahitiensis.

    Vanilla planifolia grows today in tropical climates, in Mexico and South America, Caribbean, islands of the Indian Ocean, Indonesia… Vanilla growing in Mexico

    is considered to be one of the best, due to the fact that it grows in the country of its origin, however, the production there is not big.
     

    Vanilla Bourbon comes from Madagascar, an island in the Indian Ocean, which is considered to be the biggest producer of vanilla, as they produce 1,000 tons of

    pods per year, Comoro Islands and Reunion islands. The same variant is grown in Africa and Indonesia. It was named after the former name of the Reunion

    Island, Bourbon, a name given in honor of the royal house. Bourbon vanilla is the same Vanilla planifolia, but the new and different conditions of production by

    all means affect the quality of taste and smell.

    Vanilla Bourbon is of rich scent and taste. This kind of vanilla is used for production of natural vanillin produced by pods in a form of crystals, during the process

    of drying.

    Production of natural vanillin is a long and expensive process. Vanilla pods are forming and growing from the beautiful green-yellow and yellow vanilla flowers.

    In natural conditions the flowers are pollinated by insects and hummingbirds, but on plantations it is done manually. Green pods remain on branches for 8-9

    months and after picking they are being dried for another half a year. During the drying process they produce white crystals – vanillin.
     


    Tahitian vanilla grows in the islands of French Polynesia (Tahiti) and is a more rare and expensive variant. Its taste is regarded as milder than the Vanilla

    planifolia, but the scent is stronger. It contains less vanillin and more heliotropine, which gives a fruity nuance.
     

    French vanilla which can be found among the components of fragrances is not a special kind of vanilla, but a kind of quality label of its taste and scent as real

    (identical to natural vanilla) and intensive. The name originates from a French ice cream recipe.



    Here's a romantic legend about vanilla.

    Photos: The Purple Foodie, acfou, flickr.com, djwtwo
    Sources: amadeusvanillabeans.com, library.ucla, wikipedia


    Author: Elena Knezevic (jeca)
    Fragrantica Member

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