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Odor profile: the king of flowers, lemony fresh with various nuances of powder, wood notes or fruit, feminine, clean, intensely romantic
No rose could ever rue
The exquisite embroidery
Of sparkling drops of dew.
Roses are dusk sisters.
They start blooming when sun is rising,
And, opening, they are laughing and crying …
Roses—one of the most beautiful and praised flowers, have been valued for centuries in many cultures, and have been cultivated and hybridized worldwide. Rose plants range in size from compact, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach 7 meters in height. Species from different parts of the world easily hybridize, which has given rise to the many types of garden roses.
The name rose comes from French, itself from Latin rosa, which was borrowed from Greek and old Persian from the beginning.
Rose absolute is the steam-extracted (or solvent-extracted) essential oil from rose flowers (mostly from Rosa damascene and Rosa centifolia) that has been used in perfumes and skin care for centuries. Rose water, made from the rose oil, is widely used in Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine.
The French are known for their rose syrup, most commonly made from an extract of rose petals. Also tea made of rose petals is extremely delicious! I brew it for 5-10 minutes and drink in the morning without anything.
Rose hips (from Rosa canina) in country kitchens are traditionally used to make wine, vinegar, jams, syrup, and tea. They are also pressed and filtered to make rosehip syrup which is used as a nutritional supplement. Rose hips are also used to produce rosehip seed oil, which is used in skin products and some medicinal purpose. I drop the oil in my baby’s stuffed nose.
Unfortunately most of the hybrid roses bred for exotic colours lost their scent. The species R.damascena, centifolia, sempervirens and moschata known for aromatherapy use are grown in Bulgaria, Turkey, Russia, France, Uzbekistan, Morocco, Egypt, Pakistan, India, Iran and Crimea.
Flowers are hand-picked either in early morning or before the dusk and extracted the same day. Rose oil contains citronellol, phenyl ethyl alcohol, geraniol, nerol and stearopten waxes.
اسطو خودوس (Lavender)
Odor profile: aromatic clean note, medicinal on one end and licorice-like on the other end.
Lavender is a flowering plant in the mint family Lamiaceae, native to the mountainous zones of the Mediterranean, where it typically grows in sunny and stony habitants. Today it grows all around the southern Europe, Australia, and the United States, boasting its woody branches covered with gray-green narrow leaves and small violet flowers, known for their strong and relaxing odor.
The English word “lavender” probably comes from Latin “lavare” meaning “to wash.” The origin of the modern name refers to the ancient tradition of using lavender in perfumed oils for bathing, as practiced in the times of the Roman Empire. Another possible interpretation stems from the earliest known English name for this herb – livendula. Livendula is Latin name for livid or bluish color, and bears a strong reference to the violet flowers of lavender.
Since the ancient times, lavender has been used as a natural remedy in herbal and aromatherapy. People used to fill pillows with lavender to promote good night sleep and chase away nightmares. This herb was also used to improve mood, reduce anxiety and soothe stomach irritations. During the World War I, the essential oil of lavender was used to disinfect the surfaces in hospitals, while many folk recipes mention lavender as an excellent remedy for insect bites and burns.
This lovely plant also has a culinary use, adding floral and sugary flavor to most dishes. Lavender syrup and dried lavender buds are used to make lavender scones and marshmallows, while high-quality Monofloral honey, produced from lavender nectar, remains one of the most precious gourmand delights.
The essential oil of lavender is widely used in production of perfumes and body-care products. Depending on the sort, lavender essential oil can have very sweet or distinctively sharp aroma. French lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), for example, has a sweet floral aroma while Dutch lavender (Lavandula intermedia) contains higher levels of camphor and other terpenes, having very strong aromatic and sharp odor. Essential oil extracted from Lavandula intermedia is named Lavandin. This hybrid lavender has completely different chemical and therapeutic properties, even though it finds its use in the perfume industry for its refreshing notes.
Lavender essential oil is obtained by distillation from the flower spikes. Lavender oil of premium quality is produced in France, where Lavandula angustifolia grows in its natural habitant at an altitude of 600-1500 m. Distillation process usually takes place in small local distilleries yielding around 100 t of pure lavender oil yearly. This oil is used in fresh, sweet and floral fragrances, and especially in Fougère types of perfumes distinguished by their herbal lavender top notes and oakmoss base. In its pure form, lavender oil is colorless or pale-yellow liquid, but its exact odor varies depending on the source of lavender, the altitude at which it is grown, and the very distilling techniques.
Lavender Absolute is green and rich in odor, having a distinctively herbaceous smell that reminds of the natural scent of flowering lavender. The absolute is sweeter but less floral than the essential oil and offers sugary, herbaceous and soothing woody connotation to the composition. Just like the lavender essential oil, it makes a nice olfactory harmony with citruses, and especially bergamot, oakmoss, patchouli, pines, rosemary, neroli, orange blossom and sage.
Lavender note is commonly used in production of colognes and perfumes for men, lending its dry and balmy base to some of the most prominent fragrant compositions such as Azzaro pour homme from 1978, and more contemporary Hugo Boss Bottled Night from 2010. Lavender is a main note in vintage creations such as Royal Scottish Lavender by Creed and English Lavender by Atkinsons.
Other fragrances that contain cedar can be found listed below this article.
Author: Marina Milojević (Mary)
Fragrantica Writer, Translator & Editor
Odor profile: apricot-smelling blossom, soft, pliable, sensuous, from an exotic plant cherished in the East. Pairs well with lactonic florals.
Osmanthus blossoms, though not as popular in the West as some other flowers more commonly found, have the olfactory beauty of an intricate dentelle of fruity-leathery smells evoking plums, apricots and prunes hidden in the suede pouch upon a warrior-poet’s belt, as if taken out of a Chinese vignette. It's hard not to be enraptured by their at once complex and delicate scent once you experience it and they lend their delightful and refined aroma in many a perfume composition.
BOTANY AND TRADITIONAL USES
Osmanthus fragrans (Sweet Osmanthus) or 桂花/ guìhuā in Chinese and金木犀/ Kinmokusei in Japanese is another member of the Oleaceae family (like olive or lilac) and its fresh and highly fragrant aroma is a natural wonder professing a nuanced texture. Also known as "Tea Olive" (because olive is the pre-eminent member of the Oleaceae family) it is the emblem flower of Hangzhou, China.
It is especially valued as an additive for tea and other beverages in the Far East where usually the aromatic extract comes from the golden yellow flowers variety. This is because the variant Osmanthus fragrans Lour. var thunbergii has more carotenoids in its chemical make-up which contribute both to the sunnier colouring as well as the enhanced aroma. The flowers are also used to produce osmanthus-scented jam (called guì huā jiàng).
THE CHEMICAL ANGLE
According to Leffingwell: "While the flowers of osmanthus range from silver-white (Osmanthus fragrans Lour. var. latifolius Mak.) to gold-orange (Osmanthus fragrans Lour. var. thunbergii Mak.) to reddish (Osmanthus fragrans Lour. var. aurantiacus Mak.), the extract (alcohol absolute) is usually prepared from the gold-orange flowers. Osmanthus absolute is very expensive (~U.S. $4000.00 per kilogram) and accordingly is used in only the most expensive perfumes and flavors.
Various workers have examined the different colored varieties and find that the gold-orange variety (e.g., Osmanthus fragrans Lour. var thunbergii ) tends to have more of the desirous notes and tend to be higher in carotenoid derived materials. Among the carotenoids of Osmanthus are all trans-beta-Carotene, all trans-alpha-Carotene and Neo-beta-carotene B.
In addition to cis-jasmone, gamma-decalactone and various delta-lactones which contribute to the flavor of Osmanthus, an extensive number of ionone derivatives and Theaspirane derivatives derived from carotenoids are present."
OSMANTHUS IN PERFUMERY
Osmanthus absolute is indeed an expensive raw material for the perfumer, but worth investing in due to its unique olfactory profile: Highly fragrant and succulent in its peachy-apricoty top note it is nothing short of mouthwatering. The effect of the natural flower is undoubtedly enhanced with a synthesized apricoty creamy note (benzylaldehyde, aldehyde C16, amyl butyrate), giving an almost velours effect. The essence of osmanthus naturally contains cis-jasmone (a white floral note), gamma-decalactone and various delta-lactones (peachy-milky notes) as well as several ionones derivates, which accounts for its violet-like sweetness.
Synthesized essences are essential to reinforce and extend the fruity nuance of the real blossoms in most commercial formulae, while the underpinning with suede-like materials gives depth and sensuality.
FRAGRANCES WITH OSMANTHUS NOTES:
Aubusson Histoire d'Amour
Ayala Moriel Kinmokusei
Badgley Mischka by Badley Mischka
Calvin Klein Escape
Davidoff Echo for women
Elizabeth Arden Sunflowers
Estee Lauder Beautiful Love
Escada Sunny Frutti
Givenchy L'Interdit (2003 re-issue)
Hermes Osmanthe Yunnan
Hove Tea Olive
Jean Patou 1000
Keiko Mecheri Osmanthus
Kenzo Jungle Le Tigre
Lancome Benghal (travel exclusive)
Marcela Borghese Il Bacio
Michael Kors by Micheal Kors
Narciso Rodriguez Narciso for Her (recreated note)
Nina Ricci Deci Dela
Oleg Cassini Cassini
Ormonde Jayne Osmanthus
Oscar de la Renta Volupte
Parfums d'Empire Osmanthus interdite
Providence Perfumes Osmanthus Oolong
Roger & Gallet Fleurs d'Osmanthus
Serge Lutens Datura Noir
The Different Company Osmanthus
Author: Elena Vosnaki is a historian & perfume writer from Greece and a Writer to Fragrantica. She is the founder and editor of Perfume Shrine, one of the most respected independent online publications on perfume containing fragrance reviews, industry interviews, essays on raw materials and perfume history, a winner in Fragrantica Blog Awards and a finalist in numerous blog awards contests. Her writing was recognised at the Fifi Awards for Editorial Excellence in 2009 and she has been contributing to publications around the world.
Odor profile: subtle scent of herbal and hay-like nuance, very soft and imperceptible
The name of this plant derives from Greek word helios, meaning sun and anthos, meaning flower. Sunflower is an annual plant, the biggest and the most popular one among Helianthus plant family. It is very useful and is often planted in wetlands, since its roots go deep inside the ground and dry it out. Besides water, the root absorbs harmful molecules and it is excellent as a plant purifying the terrain of polluted ground.
Sunflower is a summer flower, since it flourishes from June to September or to the beginning of autumn. It is usually yellow, but also in orange and crimson nuances. The center of its floral head is composed of inflorescence, surrounded with 10 cm long petals. The products of central flowers are of dark brown and black colour, of oval and flat shapes. There are light grey seeds inside them and they are rich in proteins, plant fats, vitamins and minerals.
Sunflower seed is an essential part of human nourishment. It produces oil, since each seed contains 30 to 50% of plant oil in its ingredients. 20 grams of sunflower seeds satisfy human's daily need for vitamin E. Dried and fried seeds are rich in protein almost like meat, so they are often used in preparing meals.
Gentle oblong petals are used in preparing tea; they have bitter taste and pleasant aromas of honey.
Central inflorescence creates a unique mathematic model and motive presented by H.Vogel at his time. It had the form of Fermatsk's spiral, with meticulously pinpointed place of each flower in inflorescence.
This fascinating flower charmed many ancient civilizations. Indians used sunflower in their nutrition, made flour and filtered oil a thousand years B.C. It has been grown for centuries in China and Greece, where it is dedicated to god Helios. Aztecs crowned their priestesses with these flowers and Maya valued and respected this flower, preparing tea of its petals, used seeds, stems and leaves in nutrition. Sunflower was a flower of fertility and holiness for Maya.
Sunflower was inspiration for Vincent Van Gogh, and he placed these beautiful flowers on one of his master-pieces –Sunflowers.
Odor profile: earthy, powdery scent that resembles iris rhizome when talking about the flower; metallic, green and aqueous when talking about the leaf
Violet (Viola odorata), also called Sweet Violet, grows in the Mediterranean regions and Asia Minor. Its delicate purple, white, or variegated flowers appear early in spring, even before trees grow leaves. Violet is well known for its sweet floral scent, but also for its wide variety of therapeutic properties: It helps fighting colds, asthma, rheumatic pains and a range of infections (including syphilis). Violet was the symbol of ancient Athens and was one of Napoleon Bonaparte's favourite flowers. In the 19th century, violet-based perfumes were very popular.
The scent of violet flowers is different than the scent of the leaves. The flower possesses a sweet powdery, woody-floral scent which is due to ionones in the flower. These ionones were first separated from Parma violets by Tiemann and Kruger in 1893. The discovery of ionones triggered the successful production of synthetic violet notes identical in scent and less expensive as the precious natural oil. Nowadays, ionones and methyl ionones are used in almost every perfume. The scent palette of ionones ranges from aromas of fresh violet in blossom to mild woody and sweet floral nuances. Methyl ionones possess a stronger woody nuance, similar to iris.
Violet aromas can be found in the following fragrances:
Angel Garden Of Stars - Violette Angel (Thierry Mugler)
Ultraviolet (Paco Rabanne)
April Violets (Yardley)
La Violette (Annick Goutal)
Verte Violette (L'Artisan Parfumeur)
Violette Precieusse (Caron) - created in 1913, launched again in 1999, and re-launched in 2007
Oscar Violet (Oscar de la Renta)
Caprice Violette (Lolita Lempicka)
The scent of violet leaves is different from the scent of the flowers. The leaves give off an intensively green aroma which is resembles mowed grass combined with a hint of cucumber. In the South of France two kinds of violets are cultivated mainly for their leaves - Parma and Victoria. The fresh scent of violet leaves is an integral component in many fragrance compositions, ranging from fresh floral to oriental spicy and fougere. The aromas of violet leaf are, for example, part of the compositions of L by Gwen Stefani, Dior's Fahrenheit, Annick Goutal's La Violette and Dona Karan's Be Delicious. In Be Delicious the fresh, green note of violet leaves with the characteristic cucumber nuance is quite intensive and plays an important part in the "construction" of the green apple scent.
The violet root is has therapeutic properties and is used in traditional medicine, but not as a perfume component. Although it can often be found in the description of perfume compositions, violet root has nothing to do with violet. This accords is actually iis root.
Its natural scent is not too intensive and is reminiscent of a violet scent, which is where the name comes from. The "false" violet root, or rather iris root, is a component in many fragrances. It gives off a woody-floral aroma and, at the same time, it is a very good fixative. It can be found in Pleasures for Men and Boss Woman.
Odor profile: citrusy, light, slightly bitter, hints of orange and honey blossom floral facets, purifying, aromatic, romantic.
Orange Blossom is a fragrant distillation of fresh bitter-orange flower. This orange, also known as sour orange, is usually too sour to be enjoyed out of hand, but this very same bitterness makes this type of orange much more aromatic than the rest of the orange varieties. Almost all parts of bitter orange are used to produce beautiful and aromatic materials for the fragrance industry: the essential oil is derived from peel of a fruit, orange leaves are used in production of Petitgrain oil, while delicate white flowers serve in production of Neroli and Orange Blossom absolute.
The bitter orange tree (Citrus aurantium) is widely grown in the western parts of India, eastern Africa and Himalayas. Spaniards brought sour orange into St. Augustine, Florida, in the mid-1500s. By 1763, sour oranges were being exported from St. Augustine to England, setting the grounds for what is Florida today - one of the world’s largest producers of oranges. This state even uses the orange blossom as the official state symbol since May 5, 1909. During the orange blossom time, in spring, millions of delicate waxy white flowers scent the air throughout central and south Florida. Being one of the most fragrant flowers, orange blossoms are an indispensible material in perfume industry.
Orange flowers have been used in wedding traditions since the times of ancient China. In Chinese tradition, orange flowers were omens of purity, innocence and moral virtue, but also a symbol of fruitfulness and fertility. Brides of all nations have always worn some kind of a floral embellishment on their wedding day, and the tradition of using orange flowers has spread from the East to Europe, during the times of the Crusaders. Maidens have used fresh orange blossoms to decorate their hair on a wedding day, and this custom was so widespread that that the expression "to gather orange blossoms" took completely different connotation by starting to mean "to seek a wife".
Fragrant flowers of bitter orange are used in production of Orange Blossom and Neroli extracts. Even though these fragrant notes possess different olfactory characteristics, the only thing that distinguishes them one from another is a different process of extraction. This example clearly illustrates the importance of technology used in production of raw materials since these two materials, even they originate from the same type of flower, have completely different properties. Orange blossom absolute is obtained by solvent extraction as a concrete, and using alcohol washing and filtering in the form of an absolute. Neroli is obtained by steam-distillation of freshly picked flowers.
Neroli oil has beautiful aromatic fragrance that leans a bit towards fresh and green petitgrain. Orange blossom absolute, on the other hand, has deeper and sweet fragrance that strongly reminds of the heady scent of fresh flowers, intoxicating and overwhelming, it feels close to the scent of jasmine (as it actually shares some of the common chemical components with this flower, Methyl anthranilate, for example).
Orange blossom absolute is used in many different types of fragrances and especially in colognes, chypres, ambers, floral bouquets, and heavy orientals. It beautifully complements all other citrusy notes and acts as a natural fixative, allowing the original composition to last longer while keeping its true fragrance.
An amazing orange blossom fragrance is Fleurs D'Oranger by Serge Lutens. Sweet, delicate, soft and feminine, this fragrance offers an intoxicating bouquet of white flowers coupled with a single fresh greeny rose. Jo Malone's Orange Blossom cologne, with its heart of orange blossom and water lily, is another great example of this note, while Yardley’s Orange Blossom, designed to highlight modern notes of fragrances inspired by English flowers, offers wonderful and sophisticated combination of orange blossom and sensual musk. Fleur du Mâle by Jean Paul Gaultier, named after the Baudelaire’s collection of poems, uses orange blossom in a decadent and flowery, slightly feminine composition, designed especially for men.
To find more amazing fragrances with Orange Blossom note, please use our search by notes. To learn more about neroli and orange blossom raw materials, check out Sandra’s informative article Orange Flower or Neroli.
Author: Marina Milojević (Mary)
Fragrantica Writer, Translator & Editor
Odor profile: very sweet narcotic scent, extremely fragrant and intoxicating, night-blooming and known for being toxic
Datura is probably one of the most interesting herbs in our glossary of perfumery notes. Doing research on Datura was quite a challenge, but the journey into the mythological garden was so interesting that I couldn’t help myself from composing a very long article and retelling many of the fascinating stories I’ve heard about it. The aim of this story is to help you understand many of the Datura-themed fragrances in which this herb sometimes appears as an ingredient and very often as a fantasy concept around which the notes are arranged. Special thanks goes to Elena Vosnaki—Fragrantica’s contributing editor and international fragrance specialist and consultant—for her priceless reviews on datura fragrances and expert recommendations.
Datura is a genus that consists of nine species of flowering plants belonging to the family Solanaceae. What is typical for all species of this genus is that they open and bloom in the evening, which perfectly fits the dark nature of Datura. Think of it as of a dark and powerful flower, a deadly and poisonous plant which is at the same time one of the oldest healing herbs.
The Aztecs reportedly used datura leaves as a treatment for hemorrhoids, to treat severe fevers, or to alleviate asthma. People suffering from insomnia have used it for centuries as a bed liner, while other folk remedies blend Datura with sesame oil and gigantic swallow wort leaves to create ear drops for the treatment and prevention of ear infections.
Datura is a wandering annual plant that typically grows in the vicinity of human dwellings. It grows in all parts of the world, typically at the borders of the fields or along the roadsides, on rubbish heaps and in neglected corners of rich ground. Datura's precise distribution is uncertain, but its name originates from the Hindi word dhatūrā, meaning "thorn apple." This descriptive name refers to the appearance of the seed capsules of the plant, which are typically the size of a walnut and are covered with thorns.
The most beautiful feature of Daturas is certainly their trumpet-like flowers which emanate an unusual heady scent at dusk. The sweet and distinctly erotic fragrance of this night-blooming plant is tainted with the strongly unpleasant smell of its deep green 6-inch leaves, which are sometimes used as an hallucinogen, or precisely, a potent deliriant. A day before it blooms, the Datura bud unfolds its petals in a gorgeous spiral pattern, which is a beautiful example of the Fibonacci sequence in nature.
Even though they are so charming in appearance, Datura plants contain lethal levels of poison, namely tropane alkaloids atropine, hyoscyamine and scopolamine. These active deliriants usually produce deep confusional states in which a person loses the ability to tell reality from fantasy, expresses bizarre or violent behavior and experiences elevated body temperature and heart rates, very painful photophobia and a loss of memory. Datura may even be fatal if ingested and, very often, deaths are reported from its recreational use. Each of Datura's names comes from a different culture and tells us the story about one of its numerous uses and abuses. As you will see, most of them are very sinister.
Before continuing with this article, I’d like to warn you that Datura is an extremely poisonous and dangerous hallucinogen. Datura use has been linked to many deaths, and even the smallest dose can produce extremely unpleasant and dangerous effects. Do not attempt to consume any of its parts.
These two plants are closely related and share the same characteristics
an herbaceous plant with white, yellowish, pink and purple flowers, which are erect
a small tree or shrub with pendulous flowers which can be white, yellow, pink, orange or red.
In the mythology of Native Americans, Datura was a sacred plant used for both magical and medicinal purposes. Native American mythology is composed of traditional narratives and spiritual stories which are deeply rooted in nature. In such a religious system, rich with the symbolism of plants, Datura holds a special place. In the culture of aboriginal America, an area populated by Indian tribes living throughout the North and South continents, Datura was one of the most widely used hallucinogenic plants. The plant was prized for its ability to help mortals communicate with gods and with the spirits of the dead.
The most interesting tales about Datura have been told by the people of Chumash, who used this plant in their quests for visions and supernatural powers. The Indians worshiped the goddess Momoy, the Chumash Goddess of Datura, who was often depicted as a frightening-looking old woman who holds the power of clairvoyance.
Momoy was able see into the future, even though she wasn’t able to interfere with the future events and change the course of history. Still, her omniscience was invaluable for mortals who could also become clairvoyant if only they drank of the water in which Momoy has washed her hands. This intoxicating liquid would lead souls into a deep slumber, surrounding them with visions of the future and revealing forthcoming prosperity or inevitable troubles.
Thanks to the work of contemporary ethnographers, many of the brief and hypothetical Chumash narrative texts have been decoded, providing us valuable insight into the Datura cult among the Native Americans. Today we know that the reason for Datura's immense significance in mythology of Northern American Indians lies in the fact that they used this plant to gain visions in which the individual's lifelong guardian spirit, a supernatural helper, was sought. Datura was administered to youths during a puberty ritual to make a contact with their dream helper. They believed that the dream helper comes only to a person who had drunk a potion made from Datura. The purpose of someone's first Datura experience was to establish this connection. Being successful in the ritual, one could take Datura anytime later in life, to strengthen the bond with the guardian spirit or to seek supernatural power and aid in times of trouble.
According to the legend, Momoy took a bowl, added water, and then washed her hands in it to create a magic potion. When her grandson asked her why she didn't take a bath and make an even more powerful drink she said, “If I took a bath, you’d turn into a devil or die. Just up to my elbows is enough.” American Indians were familiar with all of the dangers of Datura, and for this reason only the specialists in the use of the plant were allowed to make the potions and give them to the drinkers. Moreover, the specialists and the drinker would have to fast for a couple of days before the ritual, abstaining from sexual intercourse, meat and grease.
Datura specialists were also the ones who went to dig the roots from the ground, while approaching Datura respectfully and in prayer: “Grandmother, I have come to beg for one of your roots.” Datura givers would calculate the effective dose according to the type of the soil from which the roots were dug, the age of the plant and the size of the roots. The first Datura experience was the most closely controlled, but deaths from poisoning would still happen from time to time. The Chumash believed that these occasional deaths occurred always when the drinker had violated fasting taboos, disrespecting the Datura spirit and causing its hostility.
The drinker who had not prepared himself through fasting, to approach the experience with a calm mind, would perceive only exaggerated echoes of own dreads and weaknesses. The one who prepared would meet the dream helper, usually an animal-spirit, who would offer lifetime protection and some specific talent to the drinker.
Perhaps the most controversial use of Datura stems from the Vodun tradition, popularly known as the voodoo. Vodun is a religion of coastal West Africa from Nigeria to Ghana, which is also practiced as a traditional animistic religion among the African Diaspora in the Dominican Republic, Haiti and in the American Deep South. In the Vodun religion, there is a strong distinction between the physical body, the animating principle and the awareness. According to the doctrines of Vodon, the sorcerers can zombify their victims by simply extracting the awareness from the person and leaving the spirit to reanimate a dead body. Study of the folklore in Haiti suggests that the zombified persons truly existed and that they became victims of zombification due to a powerful psychoactive drug—two special powders rubbed into the wound and thus introduced to the bloodstream. The first powder is made from the flesh of the pufferfish and toad skin, while the second one blends various dissociative drugs, and primarily Datura.
Across the Caribbean, Datura is known as the Herb of the Sorcerers or Zombie Cucumber. The name, obviously, refers to a disturbing use of the plant to induce a state of trance, numbness of the physical sensations and complete depersonalization. Usually, the victims of zombification were disobedient members of the community, various delinquents or rebellious slaves who would not improve their habits upon milder means of punishment. A Zombified person was pronounced dead and, according to the Haitian penal codes from 19th century, zombification was considered murder. The intoxicated person was even placed in a coffin with an air tube (to provide a supply of fresh air), and buried for 3 days. After this period, the coffin was recovered from the grave and the victim was given another dose of Datura powder, followed by a ceremony to initiate the zombie into the after-life. At this point the victim was completely brainwashed and the pharmaceutically induced hypnotic state was further maintained by giving regular doses of the Datura brew to the zombie, who had completely lost any sense of self.
A zombified person can move, hear and speak, but they cannot respond to any kind of stimulus. Basically, the victim’s metabolic rate is slowed down to the point where it appears to be "living dead." Suffering from memory loss and complete disorientation, zombified victims would typically become submissive servants, living in the induced state of psychotic delirium. They were often sold to sugar plantations as slave labor.
Datura was also one of the ingredients of witches’ flying ointment—an hallucinogenic balm used by witches, consisting of a fatty base and a blend of various herbal extracts. The ointment was poisonous when ingested but it was absorbed more slowly into the body if applied on the skin. With the help of the mixture, the witches were able to fly to the Sabbath on their broomsticks, to attend the occultists’ meetings at midnight.
For those who don’t believe in mythical beings, flying brooms are just a symbol for the psychoactive drug trips. Modern science often translates these fabled journeys to the Sabbath into chemical terms and complex reactions between alkaloids. But in this article, I want to do justice to Datura and propose another reading for the legend of the flying brooms.
Historically, witches are commonly believed to be in league with the Devil and other dark forces. However, according to the witch-cult hypothesis, European witchcraft was in fact a suppressed pre-Christian pagan religion, based on the Earth, nature, cyclical changes, plants and animals. The priests and priestesses of this matriarchal religion, just like the Indians of the Americas, often used psychoactive plants to communicate with the divine supernatural forces. The broomsticks were actually used for stirring the boiling fat mixed with hexing herbs, and to apply the ointment to the mucous membranes of some hard-to-reach places—by sitting on them nude.
It takes some serious historical digging to comprehend the role of women and Goddesses in pagan religions. Perhaps that’s why the image of the old witch flying across the sky on her faithful broomstick still remains only a mythical symbol and a true cultural icon.
Oddly enough, Datura is known both as the Angel’s Trumpet and the Devil’s Weed. Much of the contemporary interest in Datura is traceable to the writings of Carlos Castaneda, and especially his popular book The Teachings of Don Juan. In this work, Castaneda describes the philosophy of Don Juan, a Yaqui sorcerer and shaman, whom he had met in the early 60s, before psychedelic drugs became popular with the hippie movement. In Castaneda’s writings, Don Juan appears as a typical shaman who teaches his apprentices to navigate through the fantasy realms carried by the wings of Datura. Castaneda's drug experiences are closely tied with the Yaqui philosophy and mythology, giving birth to what was later called the New Age Movement—an ideology that draws on both Eastern and Western spiritual and metaphysical traditions.
Although typically associated with Peyote, Castaneda’s first drug experiences were actually with Datura. In a series of fascinating dialogues, Castaneda learns from Don Juan, his teacher and shaman, about a spiritual helper—an ally—living in Datura plants. The name Don Juan uses to refer to this spiritual entity is one of the Spanish names for Datura: Yerba Del Diablo or "Devil’s Weed." The shaman’s power is vast and unthinkable, but it comes to its full use only with the help of the ally who assists in transcending the realm of conventional reality. In one of his infamous experiments with Datura, Castaneda transformed into a crow and learned how to fly—just like medieval witches on their broomsticks.
Datura was regarded as one of the sacred plants even in Eurasia, and predominately in India where it was honored as one of Shiva's sacred plants. According to the Hindu religious texts, Datura grew out of Shiva's chest. On the 13th day of the waxing Moon in January, Hindu practitioners would give flowers and fruits of Datura on Shiva altars, as ritual offerings. On the festival of Shiva, hundreds of Sadhus and Yogis—who are revered by Hindus as representatives of the gods—would gather at the Pashupatinath Temple in Kathmandu to smoke Datura mixed with Cannabis sativa (Ganja)—two plants sacred to Shiva.
Another religious cult of Central India, known as Thuggee, or thugs, is associated with more sinister use of Datura. Worshippers of Kali, the goddess of time, change and death, Thuggee performed their ritual sacrificial killings with help of Datura. The Thuggee were traveling assassins who would attack voyagers they met on their journeys, robbing their bodies and burying them somewhere along the roads. They would typically invite a traveler, or even whole groups, to join their caravan. Once they would join, the Thuggee would delay an attack until they gained the trust of the newcomers. Thugee would then use Datura seeds to produce a twenty-hour intoxication of the travelers, during which they were robbed, murdered, or left to recover or pass away from the effects of the poisoning.
If you’re not afraid of the dark, there are a couple of wonderful Datura fragrances Elena Vosnaki would like to recommend.
DATURA in FRAGRANCES
by Elena Vosnaki
Two characteristic fragrances that bring to mind the dangerous qualities of the datura plant are Serge Lutens Datura Noir and Evening Edged in Gold by Ineke.
Datura Noir is rather schizophrenic, even for a Lutens fragrance, aiming at pushing several buttons at once, much like the hallucinogenic datura plant is famous for; the Lutens fragrance is a kaleidoscope which changes perceptibly every time you give it a slight shake. It has the almond nuance of cyanide we read about in novels, yet dressed in edible apricot and tropical fruit and floral (tuberose) notes as if trying to belie its purpose, while at the same time it gives the impression of coconut-laced suntan lotion smelled from afar, as if vacationing at Palm Beach in some 1950s film noir where women are promiscuous and men armed to the teeth beneath their grey suits. The noir moniker is perfect for a night-blooming blossom, but also for something dangerous and off- kilter just like a classic cinemascope of the era. And yet Datura Noir is a modern fragrance, very much with its feet in the here and now.
The apricot nuance in Datura Noir is due to both apricot pits used in making amaretto liqueur (which smells and tastes of bitter almonds oddly enough) and to osmanthus flowers, a blossom that smells like an hybrid between apricot and peach. The effect is sweet, narcotic, perhaps a tad too buttery sweet thanks to the profuse and clearly discernible coconut note which smothers the more carnal aspects of the tuberose in the heart.
Evening Edged in Gold by Ineke uses Angel's Trumpet (a particularly fragrant datura) mixed with supporting players (plum and osmanthus) but also with contrasting elements for balance (bitterish, leathery saffron). The general ambience is warm, smoldering, sweet, headlong into what the French call capiteux ("heady, intoxicating").
The creamy tonality of Evening Edged in Gold is less loud or potent than the Lutens fragrance, while at the same time still delivering a punch. This is a perfume to opt for when you are in a sexy or party mood, but are sure that the floral sweetness and candied aspects will be appreciated.
Other fragrances featuring datura include Maître Parfumeur et Gantier Secrète Datura, a powdery, elegant take of the herbal tinge of datura allied to vanilla-smelling heliotrope, Keiko Mecheri's Datura Blanche (lighter than the Lutens), White Datura by lluminum Perfume and Green Datura by Voluspa.
Author: Marina Milojević (Mary)
Fragrantica Writer, Translator & Editor
گل خربق سفید (Hellebore flower)
lat. Helleborus odorus
Hellabore Flower Helleborus odorus
Hellabore Flower Helleborus odorus
Hellabore Flower Helleborus odorus
Odor profile: powdery smelling note that recalls primroses
Hellebore Flower is evergreen perennial flowering plant belonging to the genus Helleborus. Most of the species in this genus are poisonous. This plant grows in Europe, from Great Britain to Turkey, while the greatest concentration of the plant occurs in the Balkans. The flowers are distinguished by five petals with small cup-like nectaries. Pretty in appearance, these flowers are widely grown in gardens for decoration. Due to its toxic nature, this plant holds a significant place in folklore. I witchcraft it was used for summoning demons, while Christians believed that it sprouted in the snow from the tears of a girl who had no gift to give the Christ child.
lat. Jasminum grandiflorum, Jasminum Sambac
Jasmine Jasminum grandiflorum, Jasminum Sambac
Jasmine Jasminum grandiflorum, Jasminum Sambac
Jasmine Jasminum grandiflorum, Jasminum Sambac
Odor profile: sweet narcotic scent that is floral but with an animalic background like living flesh, can be piercingly sweet and carry scent a mile off; can present "indolic" facets or be greener/airier when synthesized in the lab
Jasmine, the name of a fun-loving fragrance, provides a unique and enthusiastic aroma. The fragrance of jasmine is joined with our culture in the forms of spirituality, tradition and also medicine. Jasminum sambac fragrance has rejuvenating, boosting and energizing properties, which makes it a natural mind-blowing fragrance, while Jasminum grandiflorum is one of the most prominent scents and it has highly unique and incredibly intense aroma.
Jasmines are a group of shrubs grown commercially for production of their fragrant flowers and essential oil. The bulk of the flowers are used as such in garlands and decorative branches for religious offerings, and a small quantity is used for production of oils and attars. Jasmine concrete and absolute are used in high-grade perfumes, and come next to rose in order of importance.
There are several species of jasmine but widely available are Jasminum sambac and Jasminum grandiflorum. These are commonly used for the flower's fragrance and also for a good quality of essential oil. Jasminum sambac is a species of jasmine native to South and Southeast Asia. It is known as the Arabian jasmine in English. It is the national flower of the Philippines, where it is known as Sampaguita. It is also one of the three national flowers of Indonesia. Another one is Jasminum grandiflorum, commonly known as French jasmine, Spanish jasmine, Catalonian jasmine, Chameli, Jaji, malati mālatī मालती or mallika mallikā मल्ललका in Sanskrit; chameli chamélī चमेली, juhi Juhī जही, or ू motiya motiyā मोततया in Hindi.
Botanical name - Jasminum sambac (Arabian jasmine), Jasminum grandiflorum (chameli , Spanish jasmine, Royal jasmine, Catalonian jasmine)
Plant Part: Flowers
Extraction Method: Essential oil in flowers is extracted through enfleurage/solvent methods which are widely used for production of jasmine attars in India.
Colour: Deep brown with a golden tinge
Strength of Aroma: Strong
Blends well with: generally blends with all oils.
Jasmine originates from the Far East, namely India and China, where for many centuries it has been one of the most valuable oils used in aromatherapy and for some ceremonial purposes. Jasmine is being cultivated in Spain, France, Egypt, Algeria, Morocco and other countries of the world. Jasmine, along with rose oil, are considered the most expensive and exotic oils used in today’s perfumery.
Since recent times, Jasmine has been concluded as the "King of Oils" (Rose is the "Queen"). Apparently this is because Jasmine is the most masculine of all the floral oils. It is also interesting to note that it takes 8,000 carefully hand- picked blossoms to produce 1 gram (about 1 ml.) of Jasmine Absolute.
Habitat and distribution
The term Jasmine is probably derived from Persian word Yasmine meaning "fragrance," which is adopted in Arabic as Yasym given to jasmine flowers. Jasminum grandiflorum is a native of Kashmir, Afghanistan and Iran, while J. Sambac is a native of South and Central India. Jasmines are widely found in warm parts of Europe, Asia, Africa and Pacific regions but are almost absent in America. Annual production of jasmine concrete is more than 15 tons, with the largest producer being Egypt, followed by Morocco, India, Italy, France and China.
Jasminum sambac is an evergreen dwarf spreading bushy shrub reaching up to 0.5 to 1 m high, with attractive glabrous leaves producing attractive, white, sweet scented flowers in great profusion in the hot season. It is the most ideal species for cultivation in Kerala (India). Only a few varieties reproduce by seed in the wild. The flowers bloom throughout the year and are produced in clusters of 3 to 12 together at the ends of branches. They are strongly scented, with a white corolla. The flowers open at night, and close in the morning.
Jasminum grandiflorum is a twining or nearly erect growing shrub. The branches are ribbed, drooping, annular; leaves are opposite, imparipinnately compound, rachis flattened or winged; leaflets of 5-7, elliptic, round or oval. Flowers are borne on terminal or axillary cymes longer than leaves, white, often tinged purple on the outside, fragrant; bracts ovate to spathulate, oblong, foliaceous, calyx glabrous, 5-lobed, star-shaped, elliptic or obovate. The corolla tube encloses 2 stamens borne on short slender filaments. Arabian Jasmine blooms all year long in the greenhouse. Flowers are ¾ to 1 inch across and are powerfully fragrant.
Jasmine concrete is a yellowish brown waxy mass with a characteristic odor of jasmine flowers. The approximate composition of jasmine flower oil obtained by enfleurage is benzyl acetate, ∂ - linalool, linalyl acetate, benzyl alcohol, jasmine, indole and methyl anthranilate. Jasmine absolute is a viscous clear yellowish brown liquid possessing a delicate odor of fresh jasmine flowers.
Uses of Jasmine essential oil
Jasmine essential oil is the natural oil with the most delicate, rich and very beautiful sweet floral aroma, making it a valuable ingredient for many cosmetic products. Jasmine is one of the oldest known and most widely-used botanical scents.
The word “Jasmine” has Persian origins, and Asian nationalities used jasmine branches with gorgeous white blossoms for their various ceremonies and rituals. This oil is one of the most common ones for meditation, stimulating the feelings of harmony and optimism, inducing joy and happiness, etc. It is one of the most commonly grown ornamentals in India and Bangladesh, where it is native. The flowers are used to make thick garlands used as hair adornments.
Jasmine flowers are utilized for scores of purposes—in Aromatherapy, for tranquillizing, for bathing, in cosmetics and many more. The uses of jasmine essential oil are endless.
Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta
Senior Research Fellow
Plant Quarantine Division
National Bearue of Plant Genetic Resources
Pusa Campus, New Delhi
سرئوس شب تاب (Night blooming Cereus)
Night Blooming Cereus
lat. Peniocereus greggii
Night Blooming Cereus Peniocereus greggii
Night Blooming Cereus Peniocereus greggii
Night Blooming Cereus Peniocereus greggii
Odor profile: tropical cactus plant with flowers which smell like vanilla
شکوفه پرتقال (Orange Blossom)
Odor profile: fresh and sweetish floral note coming from citrus aurantia tree (bitter orange tree) through solvent extraction of the flowers' pomade; very
popular in men's and women's fragrances, can veer towards "clean" or more fleshy
Orange Blossom is a fragrant distillation of fresh bitter-orange flower. This orange, also known as sour orange, is usually too sour to be enjoyed out of hand, but
this very same bitterness makes this type of orange much more aromatic than the rest of the orange varieties. Almost all parts of bitter orange are used to
produce beautiful and aromatic materials for the fragrance industry: the essential oil is derived from peel of a fruit, orange leaves are used in production of
Petitgrain oil, while delicate white flowers serve in production of Neroli and Orange Blossom absolute.
The bitter orange tree (Citrus aurantium) is widely grown in the western parts of India, eastern Africa and Himalayas. Spaniards brought sour orange into St.
Augustine, Florida, in the mid-1500s. By 1763, sour oranges were being exported from St. Augustine to England, setting the grounds for what is Florida today -
one of the world’s largest producers of oranges. This state even uses the orange blossom as the official state symbol since May 5, 1909. During the orange
blossom time, in spring, millions of delicate waxy white flowers scent the air throughout central and south Florida. Being one of the most fragrant flowers,
orange blossoms are an indispensible material in perfume industry.
Orange flowers have been used in wedding traditions since the times of ancient China. In Chinese tradition, orange flowers were omens of purity, innocence
and moral virtue, but also a symbol of fruitfulness and fertility. Brides of all nations have always worn some kind of a floral embellishment on their wedding day,
and the tradition of using orange flowers has spread from the East to Europe, during the times of the Crusaders. Maidens have used fresh orange blossoms to
decorate their hair on a wedding day, and this custom was so widespread that that the expression "to gather orange blossoms" took completely different
connotation by starting to mean "to seek a wife".
Fragrant flowers of bitter orange are used in production of Orange Blossom and Neroli extracts. Even though these fragrant notes possess different olfactory
characteristics, the only thing that distinguishes them one from another is a different process of extraction. This example clearly illustrates the importance of
technology used in production of raw materials since these two materials, even they originate from the same type of flower, have completely different
properties. Orange blossom absolute is obtained by solvent extraction as a concrete, and using alcohol washing and filtering in the form of an absolute. Neroli is
obtained by steam-distillation of freshly picked flowers.
Neroli oil has beautiful aromatic fragrance that leans a bit towards fresh and green petitgrain. Orange blossom absolute, on the other hand, has deeper and
sweet fragrance that strongly reminds of the heady scent of fresh flowers, intoxicating and overwhelming, it feels close to the scent of jasmine (as it actually
shares some of the common chemical components with this flower, Methyl anthranilate, for example).
Orange blossom absolute is used in many different types of fragrances and especially in colognes, chypres, ambers, floral bouquets, and heavy orientals. It
beautifully complements all other citrusy notes and acts as a natural fixative, allowing the original composition to last longer while keeping its true fragrance.
An amazing orange blossom fragrance is Fleurs D'Oranger by Serge Lutens. Sweet, delicate, soft and feminine, this fragrance offers an intoxicating bouquet of
white flowers coupled with a single fresh greeny rose. Jo Malone's Orange Blossom cologne, with its heart of orange blossom and water lily, is another great
example of this note, while Yardley’s Orange Blossom, designed to highlight modern notes of fragrances inspired by English flowers, offers wonderful and
sophisticated combination of orange blossom and sensual musk. Fleur du Mâle by Jean Paul Gaultier, named after the Baudelaire’s collection of poems, uses
orange blossom in a decadent and flowery, slightly feminine composition, designed especially for men.
To find more amazing fragrances with Orange Blossom note, please use our search by notes. To learn more about neroli and orange blossom raw materials,
check out Sandra’s informative article Orange Flower or Neroli.
Author: Marina Milojević (Mary)
Fragrantica Writer, Translator & Editor
گل شمعدانی (Geranium)
Other names: pelargonium, rose geranium
Odor profile: the leaf is distilled to give a rosy nuance, less powdery and more lemony than rose.
Geranium is a genus of more than 400 flowering plants that are commonly known as cranesbills. These lovely flowers grow in all temperate regions of the world,
but mostly in the eastern Mediterranean region. Most of the geraniums are prized for their beautiful flowers, but many of them are appreciated especially for
their aromatic scents. Some of the fragrant geraniums are orange, apple, rose and mint-scented geranium. The colors of their blooms may vary from red, pink,
magenta, and violet, to purple, but white colored and salmon flowers are the most common.
Geranium, or Pelargonium graveolens, is native to South Africa, having been introduced into Europe around 1690. The species name graveolens is derived
from Latin language and means strong-smelling. The English name cranesbill refers to the physical feature of some of the Geranium species that have flower
stem's craning neck or black seed-heads resembling a crane's bill.
This flower is mainly cultivated at the Reunion and Madagascar islands, in Egypt and China. China and Madagascar are especially important as they grow
Bourbon type germaniums from which the most valuable Bourbon essential oil is derived. This oil is characterized by its green rich and long lasting fruity-mint
odor with a subtle touch of a rose.
According to an old Muslim legend, the geranium first grew when the Prophet Mohammed hung his shirt on a plant to dry in the sun. When he came to pick it
up again, he found it covered with brightly colored fragrant flowers. Since antiquity, flower symbolism has been a significant part of all cultures. The color of the
bloom of geranium determines the symbolical and even magical attributes of these plants. People of New England believed that snakes would not go near those
places where wild geraniums grow. Similarly, if the blossom points downward, the flower is warning that you are stuck in the past and that constant reminiscing
is stealing your future. Pink flowers of geranium are used in love spells, while red geraniums usually grow in a pot near a witch’s cottage.
Geranium continues to cast its magic for centuries, being one of the most important raw materials in perfumery. Geranium oil, obtained by steam distillation of
the leaves, has wide applications - from body care products to high-end perfumes. Depending on the cultivation area where the plant is grown, geranium oil can
have many different properties. Reunion or Bourbon, Algerian, Moroccan, and French are the most prized types of geranium oil, but their individual olflactory
properties widely vary. The most appreciated of them, Bourbon oil, is characterized by its green rich and long lasting fruity-mint odor with a heady scent of a
rose. French types, on the other hand, are more floral and have the most refined rosy smell.
The concrete and absolute of geranium are also available and commonly used in different types of colognes, fougeres, herbal and floral fragrances, as well as in
chypres-type compositions. Geranium absolute is obtained by distillation of the aerial parts of the plant. It appears as an olive to green colored liquid with sharp
and herbaceous green odor and sweet minty-rose undertones.
Geranium essential oil possesses many of the same properties as rose essential oil. Moreover, geranium is often confused with rose essential oil, and often
used for its rose-like properties since it can be obtained for a far lesser price.
Geranium appears in Yardley’s monothematic Heritage Collection, which is designed to highlight modern notes of fragrances inspired by English flowers.
Similarly, Demeter Fragrance interprets Geranium in the Vintage Naturals 2009 limited edition. Demeter Fragrance opens with top notes of lavender and brings
floral bouquet of geranium in the core, laid on the woody base of patchouli and cedar.
You can also feel it in a beautiful rosy floral fragrance for women Geranium Bourbon by Miller Harris, and in a fresh and spicy men’s fragrance Geranium Pour
Monsieur by Frederic Malle, which revolves around the theme of geranium. This fragrance is born right out of the author’s fascination with the essence of this
flower, discovered by pure chance while he was working on soap Anterenea.
To discover more amazing fragrances with garanium note, please use our search by notes.
Author: Marina Milojević (Mary)
Fragrantica Writer, Translator & Editor
گل لادن (Nasturcia)
lat. Tropaeolum majus
Nasturcia Tropaeolum majus
Nasturcia Tropaeolum majus
Nasturcia Tropaeolum majus
Odor profile: belonging in the species Tropaeolum majus, sweet smelling note
Nasturtiums are one of the favorite flowers of gardeners because of their ease, versatility and flavor, and of course their beauty. These little wonders require
very little attention to thrive in a garden.
Botanical Name – Tropaeolum majus L.
Family – Tropaeolaceae
Common Name – Nasturtium (English), Indian cress, Pohe haole (Hawaii), Capucine
The name "Tropaeolum" comes from the Greek tropaion, which means "trophy." Tropaeolum is said to have sprouted from the spilled blood of a Trojan
warrior. The round leaf was his shield and the flower was his helmet. The English common name "nasturtium" comes from nasus tortus ("a twisted nose")
which is given because of its pungent odor.
The common name Nasturtium is confusing as it may lead to the watercresses of the genus Nasturtium belonging to the family Brasicaceae. In fact, the plant
has received its vernacular name because it produces oil similar to that produced by Nasturtium officinale. Both plants are not too closely related as
Tropaeolum majus belongs to the family Tropaeolaceae, which includes several highly-prized, but also quite common garden plants.
Tropaeolum majus originates from Peru, where it grows at up to 3,000 m altitudes. It has been naturalized in different parts of the world—Southwest Europe,
USA, Canada, Hawaii, New Zealand, Australia, South Africa and Northern Africa.
This plant generally grows in warmer parts of the lowlands and especially in coastal regions. In New Zealand it now covers most of the Northern Island and is
restricted to the coastal regions in the Southern Island. It grows usually on disturbed sites, especially adjacent to gardens and dumps, on wastelands,
riverbanks or banks along roadsides, in shrub lands, herb fields, wetlands, and streamside.
Since ancient times this plant is largely used as a kitchen herb in the Mediterranean region, where it was introduced by the conquistadors in the 1500’s. The
natives of Peru used the dried leaves as a tea to treat cough, flu and colds, but also pains or respiratory infections. It is high in vitamin C, so it is a quite efficient
natural anti-inflammatory and antibiotic used typically in the treatment of minor cuts, scratches and bruises. Called “Indian cress” by English herbalists,
because of its origins, Tropaeolum majus has gained its place in West European cuisine, adding spicy flavor to salads or being used for spiced and balsamic
vinegars. There is even a famous Nasturtium mayonnaise. During the World War II its spicy seeds were used as a pepper substitute.
Essential oil and Notes
Tropaeolum majus volatile oil contains glucosynolates, sulphur glicosydes, an antibiotic (tromalyte), bensilglucosynolate, glucosinol, and glicotropeoline. The
plant also contains flavonoids, vitamin C, iodide, spilantolic acid, oxalic acid and mirosine (enzymes). The peppery taste of nasturtium is due to the chemical
component glucosynolates, which are also present in mustard oil. The aroma of the leaves, stems and flowers is pungent.
Nasturtium was used in Bazar Christian Lacroix from 2002, Eau de Patou Jean Patou from 1976, Paris Yves Saint Laurent from 1983.
Tropaeolum majus is a glabrous annual plant, sometimes showing perennial behavior, with up to 10 m long trailing or climbing (up to 2 m high) succulent stems.
The leaves of the plants are simple and have long petioles, sometimes up to 30 cm. The flowers are usually solitary, but sometimes in clusters of 2-3, and have a
moderately irregular corolla, usually yellow to orange in color. The stamens are yellow to reddish, having the same color as the corolla. The flowers are mildly
fragrant and very showy. Fruits are dry and have carpels with 2 flattened faces and the third or dorsal side rounded and obtusely ribbed. The plant has a very
distinctive appearance and it is hard to confuse them with other species. The cultivars of this plant show variation mainly in flower color and number of petals.
Leaves of Nasturtium were eaten in salads; unripe seeds and flower buds were pickled
and served as a substitute for capers.
Problems with pimples? Soothe and heal pimples by using crushed Nasturtium petals on the afflicted areas. Use crushed leaves and flowers in an aqueous
cream to relieve cracked heels.
Author: Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta (cshekhar)
گیاه آمیریس (Amyris)
Other names: Torchwood
Odor profile: A name referring to either amyris elemifera or amyris balsamifera. The fragrance Amyris by Francis Kurkdjian uses the name as a fantasy woody
concept, instead of representing the plant in photorealism.
Amyris is a genus of flowering pants that form part of the Citrus family Rutaceae. Members of this family are commonly known as "torchwoods" due to their
highly-flammable wood. The trunks of all Amyris species exude a balsam called "Elemi," which is known for its beautiful aroma and which is used extensively in
the cosmetics and fragrance industry.
Other names: Gardinia, Cape Jasmine
Odor profile: intoxicating floral note of extreme popularity with piquant green aspects when budding, raw mushroom and sweet decay when ripe.
Gardenia is a beautiful decorative shrub with fragrant white flowers. It was named after American botanist Dr Alexander Garden. It grows in the Far East, in
India and China. Like jasmine, it is traditionally added to the tea. Gardenia symbolizes love, harmony and grace. Unfortunately, none of the attempts to produce
a natural essential oil were successful, so in the perfume industry it is only possible to be used as a dry flower extract, a synthetic analogue, or by mixing other
essential oils that emulate the natural scent of gardenia. Intensive sweet floral, silky aroma of gardenia is similar to the scent of jasmine, and as much exciting.
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پرفیوم زنانه پاکو رابان لیدی میلیون ابسولوتلی گلد 80 میل Paco Rabanne Lady Million Absolutely Gold Parfum For Women 80mlعطری بی پروا و اغوا کننده برای سفارش پیامکی کافی است کد c767 را به شماره 10005420 ارسال نمایید.
ادو تویلت مردانه پاکو رابان بلک ایکس اس ال اکسز فور هیم 50 و 100 میلPaco Rabanne Black XS L’Exces for him Eau De Toilette For Men 50-100mlدر اوایل ورود این محصول به بازار جهانی استقبال چشمگیری از این محصول شد به طوری که بعد از چند روز اول از معرفی آن تیراژ فروش آن به چند صد برابر رسید و خیلی ها برای خریدن این محصول روزها چشم به پشت ویترین فروشگاهای معتبر...
ادوتویلت مردانه پاکو رابان بلک ایکس اس لا فرودیزیاک 100 میل Paco Rabanne Black XS L'Aphrodisiaque Eau De Toilette for Men for men 100 mlلافرودیزیاک در معنای لغوی یعنی اکسیر غرایز جنسی که در شیشه ای سیاه و به همان اندازه جذاب قرار دارد برای سفارش پیامکی کافی است کد c771 را به شماره 10005420 ارسال نمایید.
ادو تویلت مردانه پاکو رابان بلک ایکس اس بی ا لجند ایگی پاپ 100 میل Paco Rabanne Black XS Be a Legend Iggy Pop Eau De Toilette For Men 100mlاین عطر الهام گرفته شده از موسیقی راک می باشد برای سفارش پیامکی کافی است کد c772 را به شماره 10005420 ارسال نمایید.
ادو تویلت زنانه پاکو رابان بلک ایکس اس Paco Rabanne Black XS for her Eau De Toilette For Womenعطر ایکس اکس بلک زنانه که باب میل بیشتر خانمها می باشد برای سفارش پیامکی کافی است کد c773 را به شماره 10005420 ارسال نمایید.
ادو پرفیوم زنانه پاکو رابان بلک ایکس اس ال اکسز Paco Rabanne Black XS L’Exces for her Eau De Parfum For Womenمحصول خارق العاده و بسیار تک و خاص برای سفارش پیامکی کافی است کد c773 را به شماره 10005420 ارسال نمایید.
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